Role of Implicit and Explicit Processes in Learning From Examples

A Synergistic Effect

Robert C. Mathews, Ray Buss, William B. Stanley, Fredda Blanchard-Fields, Jeung Ryeul Cho, Barry Druhan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

271 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Four experiments are reported in which subjects gained extensive experience with artificial grammars in explicit and implicit processing tasks. Results indicated that (a) implicit processing was sufficient for learning a finite state grammar but was inadequate for learning another type of grammar based on logical rules. (b) Subjects were able to communicate some of their implicit knowledge of the grammars to another person. (c) Consistent with rule induction but not memory array models of learning, verbal protocols indicated there was no tendency to converge on the same set of cues used to identify valid strings. (d) A synergistic learning effect occurred when both implicit and explicit processing tasks were used in the grammar based on logical rules but not in the finite state grammar. A theoretical framework is proposed in which implicit learning is conceptualized as an automatic, memory-based mechanism for detecting patterns of family resemblance among exemplars.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1083-1100
Number of pages18
JournalJournal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition
Volume15
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 1989
Externally publishedYes

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grammar
Learning
learning
Verbal Learning
Cues
learning success
induction
Grammar
human being
experiment
experience
Implicit Processing
Logic

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology

Cite this

Role of Implicit and Explicit Processes in Learning From Examples : A Synergistic Effect. / Mathews, Robert C.; Buss, Ray; Stanley, William B.; Blanchard-Fields, Fredda; Cho, Jeung Ryeul; Druhan, Barry.

In: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, Vol. 15, No. 6, 11.1989, p. 1083-1100.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Mathews, RC, Buss, R, Stanley, WB, Blanchard-Fields, F, Cho, JR & Druhan, B 1989, 'Role of Implicit and Explicit Processes in Learning From Examples: A Synergistic Effect', Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 1083-1100.
Mathews, Robert C. ; Buss, Ray ; Stanley, William B. ; Blanchard-Fields, Fredda ; Cho, Jeung Ryeul ; Druhan, Barry. / Role of Implicit and Explicit Processes in Learning From Examples : A Synergistic Effect. In: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition. 1989 ; Vol. 15, No. 6. pp. 1083-1100.
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