Trans-resveratrol (R) has a potential to increase energy expenditure via inducing browning in white adipose tissue. However, its low levels of aqueous solubility, stability, and poor bioavailability limit its application. We have successfully synthesized biocompatible, and biodegradable R encapsulated lipid nanocarriers (R-nano), and R encapsulated liposomes (R-lipo). The mean particle size of R-nano and R-lipo were 140 nm and 110 nm, respectively, and their polydispersity index values were less than 0.2. Nanoencapsulation significantly increased aqueous solubility and enhanced chemical stability of R, especially at 37 °C. R-lipo had higher physical and chemical stability than R-nano while R-nano had more prolonged release than R-lipo. Both R-nano and R-lipo increased cellular R content in 3T3-L1 cells. Both R-nano and R-lipo dose-dependently induced uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) mRNA expression and decreased white specific marker insulin growth factor binding protein 3 expression under isoproterenol (ISO)-stimulated conditions. At the low dose (5 μM), nanoencapsulated compared to native R enhanced UCP1 and beige marker CD137 expression under ISO-stimulated conditions. Compared to R-nano, R-lipo had better biological activity, possibly due to its higher physical and chemical stability at the room and body temperature. Taken together, our study demonstrates that nanoencapsulation increased R's aqueous solubility and stability, which led to enhanced browning of white adipocytes. Even though both R-lipo and R-nano increased R's browning activities, their differential characteristics need to be considered in obesity treatment.
- Beige cell
- Brown adipocyte
- White adipocyte
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Surfaces and Interfaces
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Colloid and Surface Chemistry