We report the profiling of spatial and energetic distributions of trap states in metal halide perovskite single-crystalline and polycrystalline solar cells. The trap densities in single crystals varied by five orders of magnitude, with a lowest value of 2 × 1011 per cubic centimeter and most of the deep traps located at crystal surfaces. The charge trap densities of all depths of the interfaces of the polycrystalline films were one to two orders of magnitude greater than that of the film interior, and the trap density at the film interior was still two to three orders of magnitude greater than that in high-quality single crystals. Suprisingly, after surface passivation, most deep traps were detected near the interface of perovskites and hole transport layers, where a large density of nanocrystals were embedded, limiting the efficiency of solar cells.
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