Resilience metrics for cyber systems

Igor Linkov, Daniel A. Eisenberg, Kenton Plourde, Thomas Seager, Julia Allen, Alex Kott

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

149 Scopus citations


As federal agencies and businesses rely more on cyber infrastructure, they are increasingly vulnerable to cyber attacks that can cause damages disproportionate to the sophistication and cost to launch the attack. In response, regulatory authorities call for focusing attention on enhancing infrastructure resilience. For example, in the USA, President Obama issued an Executive Order and policy directives focusing on improving the resilience and security of cyber infrastructure to a wide range of cyber threats. Despite the national and international importance, resilience metrics to inform management decisions are still in the early stages of development. We apply the resilience matrix framework developed by Linkov et al. (Environ Sci Technol 47:10108-10110, 2013) to develop and organize effective resilience metrics for cyber systems. These metrics link national policy goals to specific system measures, such that resource allocation decisions can be translated into actionable interventions and investments. In this paper, a number of metrics have been identified and assessed using quantitative and qualitative measures found in the literature. We have proposed a generic approach and could integrate actual data, technical judgment, and literature-based measures to assess system resilience across physical, information, cognitive, and social domains.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)471-476
Number of pages6
JournalEnvironment Systems and Decisions
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 2013


  • Cyber security
  • Network-centric operations
  • Resilience
  • Risk assessment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Science(all)


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