Resilience management in social-ecological systems: A working hypothesis for a participatory approach

Brian Walker, Stephen Carpenter, John Anderies, Nick Abel, Graeme Cumming, Marcus Janssen, Louis Lebel, Jon Norberg, Garry D. Peterson, Rusty Pritchard

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

753 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Approaches to natural resource management are often based on a presumed ability to predict probabilistic responses to management and external drivers such as climate. They also tend to assume that the manager is outside the system being managed. However, where the objectives include long-term sustainability, linked social-ecological systems (SESs) behave as complex adaptive systems, with the managers as integral components of the system. Moreover, uncertainties are large and it may be difficult to reduce them as fast as the system changes. Sustainability involves maintaining the functionality of a system when it is perturbed, or maintaining the elements needed to renew or reorganize if a large perturbation radically alters structure and function. The ability to do this is termed "resilience." This paper presents an evolving approach to analyzing resilience in SESs, as a basis for managing resilience. We propose a framework with four steps, involving close involvement of SES stakeholders. It begins with a stakeholder-led development of a conceptual model of the system, including its historical profile (how it got to be what it is) and preliminary assessments of the drivers of the supply of key ecosystem goods and services. Step 2 deals with identifying the range of unpredictable and uncontrollable drivers, stakeholder visions for the future, and contrasting possible future policies, weaving these three factors into a limited set of future scenarios. Step 3 uses the outputs from steps 1 and 2 to explore the SES for resilience in an iterative way. It generally includes the development of simple models of the system's dynamics for exploring attributes that affect resilience. Step 4 is a stakeholder evaluation of the process and outcomes in terms of policy and management implications. This approach to resilience analysis is illustrated using two stylized examples.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalEcology and Society
Volume6
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2002
Externally publishedYes

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participatory approach
stakeholder
sustainability
resource management
natural resource
perturbation
ecosystem
climate
policy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology

Cite this

Resilience management in social-ecological systems : A working hypothesis for a participatory approach. / Walker, Brian; Carpenter, Stephen; Anderies, John; Abel, Nick; Cumming, Graeme; Janssen, Marcus; Lebel, Louis; Norberg, Jon; Peterson, Garry D.; Pritchard, Rusty.

In: Ecology and Society, Vol. 6, No. 1, 2002.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Walker, B, Carpenter, S, Anderies, J, Abel, N, Cumming, G, Janssen, M, Lebel, L, Norberg, J, Peterson, GD & Pritchard, R 2002, 'Resilience management in social-ecological systems: A working hypothesis for a participatory approach', Ecology and Society, vol. 6, no. 1.
Walker, Brian ; Carpenter, Stephen ; Anderies, John ; Abel, Nick ; Cumming, Graeme ; Janssen, Marcus ; Lebel, Louis ; Norberg, Jon ; Peterson, Garry D. ; Pritchard, Rusty. / Resilience management in social-ecological systems : A working hypothesis for a participatory approach. In: Ecology and Society. 2002 ; Vol. 6, No. 1.
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