As popularity of and demand for reclaimed water projects continue to grow, the high salinity and concentration of sodium, chloride, boron, phosphorus, and nitrates in reclaimed water pose a significant management challenge, especially in the southwestern United States. Advanced treatment technologies such as reverse osmosis (RO) are effective and can improve the quality of reclaimed water for reuse, but they often require robust pretreatment that contributes to a high lifecycle cost. Other existing solutions such as sewer discharge, evaporation ponds, thermal brine concentrators, or deep well injection frequently present legal restrictions, sustainability issues, and land consumption issues, particularly for landlocked inland communities. As shown in Figure 1, it is typically deemed that the total project costs associated with concentrate management technologies increase exponentially with the increasing recovery (Sethi, 2005). Although numerous new technologies are being researched and developed, cost-effective, energy-efficient, sustainable, and reliable concentrate management solutions that are ready for full-scale implementation are still greatly needed.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Water Science and Technology