Requirements-Driven Test Generation for Autonomous Vehicles with Machine Learning Components

Cumhur Erkan Tuncali, Georgios Fainekos, Danil Prokhorov, Hisahiro Ito, James Kapinski

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

33 Scopus citations


Autonomous vehicles are complex systems that are challenging to test and debug. A requirements-driven approach to the development process can decrease the resources required to design and test these systems, while simultaneously increasing the reliability. We present a testing framework that uses signal temporal logic (STL), which is a precise and unambiguous requirements language. Our framework evaluates test cases against the STL formulae and additionally uses the requirements to automatically identify test cases that fail to satisfy the requirements. One of the key features of our tool is the support for machine learning (ML) components in the system design, such as deep neural networks. The framework allows evaluation of the control algorithms, including the ML components, and it also includes models of CCD camera, lidar, and radar sensors, as well as the vehicle environment. We use multiple methods to generate test cases, including covering arrays, which is an efficient method to search discrete variable spaces. The resulting test cases can be used to debug the controller design by identifying controller behaviors that do not satisfy requirements. The test cases can also enhance the testing phase of development by identifying critical corner cases that correspond to the limits of the system's allowed behaviors. We present STL requirements for an autonomous vehicle system, which capture both component-level and system-level behaviors. Additionally, we present three driving scenarios and demonstrate how our requirements-driven testing framework can be used to identify critical system behaviors, which can be used to support the development process.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number8911483
Pages (from-to)265-280
Number of pages16
JournalIEEE Transactions on Intelligent Vehicles
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jun 2020


  • Autonomous vehicles
  • cyber-physical systems
  • system validation
  • system verification

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Automotive Engineering
  • Control and Optimization
  • Artificial Intelligence


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