Reproducibility and validity of a food frequency questionnaire to assess cardiovascular health-related food intake among Mexican adolescents

Ricardo Terminel-Zaragoza, Sonia Vega-López, Gabriela Ulloa-Mercado, Araceli Serna-Gutiérrez, Pablo Gortares-Moroyoqui, Lourdes Diáz-Tenorio, Ana Renteriá-Mexiá

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1 Scopus citations


There is a lack of region-adapted tools to evaluate diet as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in adolescents. The study aim was to evaluate the reproducibility and validity of a paper-based and region-adapted food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) designed to assess CVD-related food and nutrient intakes of adolescents from Northwest México. The study design was cross-sectional. The FFQ was developed in a two-step process: prototype designing and a pilot test, with re-tested in a 3-month period, along with two administrations of 24 h-recall (24 hR). Pearson's and intra-class correlation coefficients (PCC and ICC) were assessed. Bland-Altman plots, limits of agreement and quintile classifications were carried out. Participants (n 221) were 53·8 % male, 18·5 ± 0·4 years old. Reproducibility had a median PCC = 0·66 for processed meats, ranging from 0·40 (saturated fat) to 0·74 (fish & shellfish), P = 0·001. ICC ranged from 0·53 (saturated fat) to 0·80 (sodium; and nuts, seeds and legumes), P = 0·001. Validity comparing FFQ1 v. 24 hR mean, PCCs ranged from 0·12 (P = 0·06) to 0·95 (P = 0·001), and ICC from 0·20 (P = 0·048) to 0·88 (P = 0·001); comparing FFQ2 v. 24 hR mean, PCCs ranged from 0·07 (P = 0·25) to 0·46 (P = 0·001), and ICC from 0·15 (P = 0·106) to 0·58 (P = 0·001). The FFQ overestimated the intake of all food groups and nutrients (P < 0·05), while Cohen's κ showed coefficients lower than 0·20. The proposed FFQ represents a moderately validated tool to estimate CVD-related food and nutrient intakes as a risk factor, which can be used in combination with multiple administrations of 24 hRs, as a critical mean in future interventions intended to reduce cardiometabolic risk in adolescents.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere3
JournalJournal of Nutritional Science
StatePublished - Feb 2 2022


  • AHA dietary targets
  • Food frequency questionnaire
  • Mexican adolescents
  • Reproducibility
  • Validity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Nutrition and Dietetics


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