Abstract

We studied the performance of a pilot-scale membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR) treating groundwater containing four electron acceptors: nitrate (NO3-), perchlorate (ClO4-), sulfate (SO42-), and oxygen (O2). The treatment goal was to remove ClO4- from ~200μg/L to less than 6μg/L. The pilot system was operated as two MBfRs in series, and the positions of the lead and lag MBfRs were switched regularly. The lead MBfR removed at least 99% of the O2 and 63-88% of NO3-, depending on loading conditions. The lag MBfR was where most of the ClO4- reduction occurred, and the effluent ClO4- concentration was driven to as low as 4μg/L, with most concentrations ≤10μg/L. However, SO42- reduction occurred in the lag MBfR when its NO3-+O2 flux was smaller than ~0.18gH2/m2-d, and this was accompanied by a lower ClO4- flux. We were able to suppress SO42- reduction by lowering the H2 pressure and increasing the NO3-+O2 flux. We also monitored the microbial community using the quantitative polymerase chain reaction targeting characteristic reductase genes. Due to regular position switching, the lead and lag MBfRs had similar microbial communities. Denitrifying bacteria dominated the biofilm when the NO3-+O2 fluxes were highest, but sulfate-reducing bacteria became more important when SO42- reduction was enhanced in the lag MBfR due to low NO3-+O2 flux. The practical two-stage strategy to achieve complete ClO4- and NO3- reduction while suppressing SO42- reduction involved controlling the NO3-+O2 surface loading between 0.18 and 0.34g H2/m2-d and using a low H2 pressure in the lag MBfR.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)115-122
Number of pages8
JournalWater Research
Volume54
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1 2014

Fingerprint

Biofilms
biofilm
membrane
Membranes
electron
Electrons
Fluxes
Lead
microbial community
Bacteria
perchlorate
Polymerase chain reaction
sulfate-reducing bacterium
removal
reactor
polymerase chain reaction
targeting
low pressure
Groundwater
Effluents

Keywords

  • Hydrogen
  • Microbial ecology
  • Nitrate
  • Perchlorate
  • Pilot membrane biofilm reactor
  • Sulfate

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Water Science and Technology
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Pollution
  • Ecological Modeling

Cite this

Removal of multiple electron acceptors by pilot-scale, two-stage membrane biofilm reactors. / Zhao, He Ping; Ontiveros-Valencia, Aura; Tang, Youneng; Kim, Bi O.; VanGinkel, Steven; Friese, David; Overstreet, Ryan; Smith, Jennifer; Evans, Patrick; Krajmalnik-Brown, Rosa; Rittmann, Bruce.

In: Water Research, Vol. 54, 01.05.2014, p. 115-122.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Zhao, HP, Ontiveros-Valencia, A, Tang, Y, Kim, BO, VanGinkel, S, Friese, D, Overstreet, R, Smith, J, Evans, P, Krajmalnik-Brown, R & Rittmann, B 2014, 'Removal of multiple electron acceptors by pilot-scale, two-stage membrane biofilm reactors', Water Research, vol. 54, pp. 115-122. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2014.01.047
Zhao HP, Ontiveros-Valencia A, Tang Y, Kim BO, VanGinkel S, Friese D et al. Removal of multiple electron acceptors by pilot-scale, two-stage membrane biofilm reactors. Water Research. 2014 May 1;54:115-122. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2014.01.047
Zhao, He Ping ; Ontiveros-Valencia, Aura ; Tang, Youneng ; Kim, Bi O. ; VanGinkel, Steven ; Friese, David ; Overstreet, Ryan ; Smith, Jennifer ; Evans, Patrick ; Krajmalnik-Brown, Rosa ; Rittmann, Bruce. / Removal of multiple electron acceptors by pilot-scale, two-stage membrane biofilm reactors. In: Water Research. 2014 ; Vol. 54. pp. 115-122.
@article{f4c50a0f13c146ebb38d9b6fc3d51722,
title = "Removal of multiple electron acceptors by pilot-scale, two-stage membrane biofilm reactors",
abstract = "We studied the performance of a pilot-scale membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR) treating groundwater containing four electron acceptors: nitrate (NO3-), perchlorate (ClO4-), sulfate (SO42-), and oxygen (O2). The treatment goal was to remove ClO4- from ~200μg/L to less than 6μg/L. The pilot system was operated as two MBfRs in series, and the positions of the lead and lag MBfRs were switched regularly. The lead MBfR removed at least 99{\%} of the O2 and 63-88{\%} of NO3-, depending on loading conditions. The lag MBfR was where most of the ClO4- reduction occurred, and the effluent ClO4- concentration was driven to as low as 4μg/L, with most concentrations ≤10μg/L. However, SO42- reduction occurred in the lag MBfR when its NO3-+O2 flux was smaller than ~0.18gH2/m2-d, and this was accompanied by a lower ClO4- flux. We were able to suppress SO42- reduction by lowering the H2 pressure and increasing the NO3-+O2 flux. We also monitored the microbial community using the quantitative polymerase chain reaction targeting characteristic reductase genes. Due to regular position switching, the lead and lag MBfRs had similar microbial communities. Denitrifying bacteria dominated the biofilm when the NO3-+O2 fluxes were highest, but sulfate-reducing bacteria became more important when SO42- reduction was enhanced in the lag MBfR due to low NO3-+O2 flux. The practical two-stage strategy to achieve complete ClO4- and NO3- reduction while suppressing SO42- reduction involved controlling the NO3-+O2 surface loading between 0.18 and 0.34g H2/m2-d and using a low H2 pressure in the lag MBfR.",
keywords = "Hydrogen, Microbial ecology, Nitrate, Perchlorate, Pilot membrane biofilm reactor, Sulfate",
author = "Zhao, {He Ping} and Aura Ontiveros-Valencia and Youneng Tang and Kim, {Bi O.} and Steven VanGinkel and David Friese and Ryan Overstreet and Jennifer Smith and Patrick Evans and Rosa Krajmalnik-Brown and Bruce Rittmann",
year = "2014",
month = "5",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.watres.2014.01.047",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "54",
pages = "115--122",
journal = "Water Research",
issn = "0043-1354",
publisher = "Elsevier Limited",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Removal of multiple electron acceptors by pilot-scale, two-stage membrane biofilm reactors

AU - Zhao, He Ping

AU - Ontiveros-Valencia, Aura

AU - Tang, Youneng

AU - Kim, Bi O.

AU - VanGinkel, Steven

AU - Friese, David

AU - Overstreet, Ryan

AU - Smith, Jennifer

AU - Evans, Patrick

AU - Krajmalnik-Brown, Rosa

AU - Rittmann, Bruce

PY - 2014/5/1

Y1 - 2014/5/1

N2 - We studied the performance of a pilot-scale membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR) treating groundwater containing four electron acceptors: nitrate (NO3-), perchlorate (ClO4-), sulfate (SO42-), and oxygen (O2). The treatment goal was to remove ClO4- from ~200μg/L to less than 6μg/L. The pilot system was operated as two MBfRs in series, and the positions of the lead and lag MBfRs were switched regularly. The lead MBfR removed at least 99% of the O2 and 63-88% of NO3-, depending on loading conditions. The lag MBfR was where most of the ClO4- reduction occurred, and the effluent ClO4- concentration was driven to as low as 4μg/L, with most concentrations ≤10μg/L. However, SO42- reduction occurred in the lag MBfR when its NO3-+O2 flux was smaller than ~0.18gH2/m2-d, and this was accompanied by a lower ClO4- flux. We were able to suppress SO42- reduction by lowering the H2 pressure and increasing the NO3-+O2 flux. We also monitored the microbial community using the quantitative polymerase chain reaction targeting characteristic reductase genes. Due to regular position switching, the lead and lag MBfRs had similar microbial communities. Denitrifying bacteria dominated the biofilm when the NO3-+O2 fluxes were highest, but sulfate-reducing bacteria became more important when SO42- reduction was enhanced in the lag MBfR due to low NO3-+O2 flux. The practical two-stage strategy to achieve complete ClO4- and NO3- reduction while suppressing SO42- reduction involved controlling the NO3-+O2 surface loading between 0.18 and 0.34g H2/m2-d and using a low H2 pressure in the lag MBfR.

AB - We studied the performance of a pilot-scale membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR) treating groundwater containing four electron acceptors: nitrate (NO3-), perchlorate (ClO4-), sulfate (SO42-), and oxygen (O2). The treatment goal was to remove ClO4- from ~200μg/L to less than 6μg/L. The pilot system was operated as two MBfRs in series, and the positions of the lead and lag MBfRs were switched regularly. The lead MBfR removed at least 99% of the O2 and 63-88% of NO3-, depending on loading conditions. The lag MBfR was where most of the ClO4- reduction occurred, and the effluent ClO4- concentration was driven to as low as 4μg/L, with most concentrations ≤10μg/L. However, SO42- reduction occurred in the lag MBfR when its NO3-+O2 flux was smaller than ~0.18gH2/m2-d, and this was accompanied by a lower ClO4- flux. We were able to suppress SO42- reduction by lowering the H2 pressure and increasing the NO3-+O2 flux. We also monitored the microbial community using the quantitative polymerase chain reaction targeting characteristic reductase genes. Due to regular position switching, the lead and lag MBfRs had similar microbial communities. Denitrifying bacteria dominated the biofilm when the NO3-+O2 fluxes were highest, but sulfate-reducing bacteria became more important when SO42- reduction was enhanced in the lag MBfR due to low NO3-+O2 flux. The practical two-stage strategy to achieve complete ClO4- and NO3- reduction while suppressing SO42- reduction involved controlling the NO3-+O2 surface loading between 0.18 and 0.34g H2/m2-d and using a low H2 pressure in the lag MBfR.

KW - Hydrogen

KW - Microbial ecology

KW - Nitrate

KW - Perchlorate

KW - Pilot membrane biofilm reactor

KW - Sulfate

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84894336983&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84894336983&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.watres.2014.01.047

DO - 10.1016/j.watres.2014.01.047

M3 - Article

C2 - 24565802

AN - SCOPUS:84894336983

VL - 54

SP - 115

EP - 122

JO - Water Research

JF - Water Research

SN - 0043-1354

ER -