Diurnal variations in urinary norepinephrine, epinephrine, cortisol, and self-reported mood states were examined in 101 employed women. Urine was collected on 2 consecutive workdays at 3 time periods: (1) overnight, (2) daytime, and (3) evening. Self-reports of 14 mood states were combined to correspond with the urinary collection periods. Factor analyses revealed 3 mood factors: Pressured (rushed, busy, stressed, hassled, and tense), Distressed (afraid, depressed, bored, and nervous), and Contented (satisfied, thoughtful, excited, and calm). The Distressed factor was significantly associated with norepinephrine excretion (p < .001). The Pressured factor was significantly associated with cortisol, epinephrine, and norepinephrine excretion (p < .001) independent of age, ethnicity, marital status, parental status, department within the company, and activity level. Secretion of urinary hormones and the Pressured factor followed the same diurnal pattern. Specifically, as women's self-ratings of feeling pressured initially increased and then decreased over the course of the workday, urinary hormones also peaked and then dropped. Once time of day was statistically controlled, however, the mood factors were no longer significantly related to the urinary hormones.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Applied Psychology