This chapter presents several fundamental concepts and approaches for designing and conducting culturally relevant relapse prevention interventions with Hispanic and other racial/ethnic clients in treatment for the abuse of illegal drugs. Effective drug abuse treatment must recognize the deeper influences of psychological, psychiatric, legal, familial, and other factors on recovery from drug abuse and dependence. Among bilingual/bicultural Hispanics and among low-acculturated Hispanics, cultural modules may be added to a standard treatment program to make that program culturally relevant. Structural Ecosystems Theory has been introduced within a multisystemic Ecodevelopmental Model to aid in understanding risk and protective factors that are relevant to the life experiences of racial/ethnic people. In the treatment of adult cocaine and heroin-addicted clients, one goal of relapse prevention is to teach skills for recognizing, avoiding, and exerting control over events that produce relapse. Acculturative stress is the stress associated with the process of acculturative change, particularly among Hispanic immigrants. The ego development, ethnic identity, and resilience are also elaborated.
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