The soiling loss factor (SLF) of photovoltaic (PV) modules/system is an interplay between the dust frequency and intensity of the site, rain frequency and intensity of the site, tilt angle and height of the module installation, and wind speed and humidity of the site. The integrated area of the downward peaks of the SLF time series plots for a year provides the annual soiling loss for the system at each tilt angle. Sandia National Laboratories, in collaboration with Arizona State University, installed five regional soiling stations around the country and collected soiling loss data over a year. Four of these soiling stations are located at the U.S. Department of Energy Regional Test Centers (Florida, Albuquerque, Colorado and Vermont), while the fifth station is located at the Arizona State University Photovoltaic Reliability Lab (Arizona). This paper presents an analysis on the SLF for each test site at ten different tilt angles. Based on the analysis of a yearlong data obtained in 2015, it appears to indicate that the Arizona site experienced the highest annual soiling loss with a significant dependence on the tilt angle while the other four sites experienced a negligibly small annual soiling loss with practically no dependence on the tilt angle.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publication2017 IEEE 44th Photovoltaic Specialist Conference, PVSC 2017
PublisherInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Number of pages4
ISBN (Electronic)9781509056057
StatePublished - 2017
Event44th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialist Conference, PVSC 2017 - Washington, United States
Duration: Jun 25 2017Jun 30 2017

Publication series

Name2017 IEEE 44th Photovoltaic Specialist Conference, PVSC 2017


Other44th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialist Conference, PVSC 2017
Country/TerritoryUnited States


  • Daily soiling loss rate
  • Soiling
  • Soiling loss factor
  • Soiling monitoring

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials


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