Reduced water intake deteriorates glucose regulation in patients with type 2 diabetes

Evan C. Johnson, Costas N. Bardis, Lisa T. Jansen, J. D. Adams, Tracie W. Kirkland, Stavros A. Kavouras

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

10 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Epidemiological research has demonstrated that low daily total water intake is associated with increased diagnosis of hyperglycemia. Possible mechanisms for this increase include hormones related to the hypothalamic pituitary axis as well as the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). Therefore, the hypothesis of the present study was that acute low water intake would result in differential hormonal profiles and thus impaired blood glucose regulation during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Nine men (53 ± 9 years, 30.0 ± 4.3 m∙kg−2, 32% ± 6% body fat) diagnosed with T2DM completed OGTTs in euhydrated (EUH) and hypohydrated (HYP) states in counterbalanced order. Water restriction led to hypohydration of −1.6% of body weight, with elevated plasma (EUH: 288 ± 4, HYP: 298 ± 6 mOsm·kg−1; P <.05) and urine (EUH: 512 ± 185, HYP: 994 ± 415 mOsm·kg−1; P <.05) osmolality. There was a significant main effect of condition for serum glucose (at time 0 minute 9.5 ± 4.2 vs 10.4 ± 4.4 mmol∙L−1 and at time 120 minutes 19.1 ± 4.8 vs 21.0 ± 4.1 mmol∙L−1 for EUH and HYP, respectively; P <.001) but not insulin (mean difference between EUH and HYP −12.1 ± 44.9 pmol∙L−1, P =.390). An interaction between time and condition was observed for cortisol: decrease from minute 0 to 120 in EUH (−85.3 ± 82.1 nmol∙L−1) vs HYP (−25.0 ± 43.0 nmol∙L−1; P =.017). No differences between conditions were found within RAAS-related hormones. Therefore, we can conclude that 3 days of low total water intake in people with T2DM acutely impairs blood glucose response during an OGTT via cortisol but not RAAS-mediated glucose regulation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)25-32
Number of pages8
JournalNutrition Research
Volume43
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 2017
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Renin-Angiotensin System
Glucose Tolerance Test
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Drinking
Glucose
Hydrocortisone
Blood Glucose
Hormones
Hyperglycemia
Osmolar Concentration
Adipose Tissue
Body Weight
Urine
Insulin
Water
Serum
Research

Keywords

  • Drinking
  • Hyperglycemia
  • Osmolar concentration
  • Vasopressin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Endocrinology
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

Cite this

Reduced water intake deteriorates glucose regulation in patients with type 2 diabetes. / Johnson, Evan C.; Bardis, Costas N.; Jansen, Lisa T.; Adams, J. D.; Kirkland, Tracie W.; Kavouras, Stavros A.

In: Nutrition Research, Vol. 43, 07.2017, p. 25-32.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Johnson, Evan C. ; Bardis, Costas N. ; Jansen, Lisa T. ; Adams, J. D. ; Kirkland, Tracie W. ; Kavouras, Stavros A. / Reduced water intake deteriorates glucose regulation in patients with type 2 diabetes. In: Nutrition Research. 2017 ; Vol. 43. pp. 25-32.
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AB - Epidemiological research has demonstrated that low daily total water intake is associated with increased diagnosis of hyperglycemia. Possible mechanisms for this increase include hormones related to the hypothalamic pituitary axis as well as the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). Therefore, the hypothesis of the present study was that acute low water intake would result in differential hormonal profiles and thus impaired blood glucose regulation during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Nine men (53 ± 9 years, 30.0 ± 4.3 m∙kg−2, 32% ± 6% body fat) diagnosed with T2DM completed OGTTs in euhydrated (EUH) and hypohydrated (HYP) states in counterbalanced order. Water restriction led to hypohydration of −1.6% of body weight, with elevated plasma (EUH: 288 ± 4, HYP: 298 ± 6 mOsm·kg−1; P <.05) and urine (EUH: 512 ± 185, HYP: 994 ± 415 mOsm·kg−1; P <.05) osmolality. There was a significant main effect of condition for serum glucose (at time 0 minute 9.5 ± 4.2 vs 10.4 ± 4.4 mmol∙L−1 and at time 120 minutes 19.1 ± 4.8 vs 21.0 ± 4.1 mmol∙L−1 for EUH and HYP, respectively; P <.001) but not insulin (mean difference between EUH and HYP −12.1 ± 44.9 pmol∙L−1, P =.390). An interaction between time and condition was observed for cortisol: decrease from minute 0 to 120 in EUH (−85.3 ± 82.1 nmol∙L−1) vs HYP (−25.0 ± 43.0 nmol∙L−1; P =.017). No differences between conditions were found within RAAS-related hormones. Therefore, we can conclude that 3 days of low total water intake in people with T2DM acutely impairs blood glucose response during an OGTT via cortisol but not RAAS-mediated glucose regulation.

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