Reciprocal Relations Between Parenting and Adjustment in a Sample of Juvenile Offenders

Lela Rankin Williams, Laurence Steinberg

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

39 Scopus citations


The over-time reciprocal links between parenting and adolescent adjustment were examined in a sample of 1,354 serious adolescent offenders followed for 3years (16years of age at baseline, SD=1.14). Parallel processing growth curve models provided independent estimates of the impact of parenting on adolescent functioning as well as the impact of adolescent functioning on parenting. Positive adolescent development was facilitated by high parental warmth and low parental hostility. Parental monitoring predicted less problematic behavior, but less positive functioning as well. Predictably, parents became warmer and less hostile in response to positive adolescent development, and less warm in response to problematic adolescent functioning. Parental monitoring declined when adolescents exhibited either positive or problematic functioning.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)633-645
Number of pages13
JournalChild Development
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2011


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Education

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