Efficient conversion of photons to electricity in organic and hybrid materials depends on optimization of factors including light absorption, exciton separation, and charge carrier migration. Bulk heterojunction devices target these processes, but disorder on the nanoscale results in inefficiencies due to exciton recombination and poor mobility. By rationally designing the morphology at appropriate length scales, one can enhance the effectiveness of internal processes and, therefore, the performance of photovoltaic devices.1 In this work, we have implemented this approach in two hybrid material systems-both of which may provide pathways to low-cost, large-area fabrication. The first involves a block copolymer which is used both as an optoelectronically active material and as a structure-directing agent to pattern active material into ordered nanostructures. The second system uses electrochemically prepared titania nanotube arrays in concert with in situ polymerization of electron-donating material. In both cases, the characteristic donor-acceptor length scale is controlled to be comparable to the exciton diffusion length throughout the active layer, and the domains are oriented perpendicular to the incident light direction to encourage efficient charge migration.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Chemical Engineering(all)