Rapid sample delivery for megahertz serial crystallography at X-ray FELs

Max O. Wiedorn, Salah Awel, Andrew J. Morgan, Kartik Ayyer, Yaroslav Gevorkov, Holger Fleckenstein, Nils Roth, Luigi Adriano, Richard Bean, Kenneth R. Beyerlein, Joe Chen, Jesse Coe, Francisco Cruz-Mazo, Tomas Ekeberg, Rita Graceffa, Michael Heymann, Daniel A. Horke, Juraj Knoška, Valerio Mariani, Reza Nazari & 18 others Dominik Oberthür, Amit K. Samanta, Raymond G. Sierra, Claudiu A. Stan, Oleksandr Yefanov, Dimitrios Rompotis, Jonathan Correa, Benjamin Erk, Rolf Treusch, Joachim Schulz, Brenda Hogue, Alfonso M. Gañán-Calvo, Petra Fromme, Jochen Küpper, Andrei V. Rode, Saša Bajt, Richard Kirian, Henry N. Chapman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

6 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Liquid microjets are a common means of delivering protein crystals to the focus of X-ray free-electron lasers (FELs) for serial femtosecond crystallography measurements. The high X-ray intensity in the focus initiates an explosion of the microjet and sample. With the advent of X-ray FELs with megahertz rates, the typical velocities of these jets must be increased significantly in order to replenish the damaged material in time for the subsequent measurement with the next X-ray pulse. This work reports the results of a megahertz serial diffraction experiment at the FLASH FEL facility using 4.3 nm radiation. The operation of gas-dynamic nozzles that produce liquid microjets with velocities greater than 80 m s-1 was demonstrated. Furthermore, this article provides optical images of X-ray-induced explosions together with Bragg diffraction from protein microcrystals exposed to trains of X-ray pulses repeating at rates of up to 4.5 MHz. The results indicate the feasibility for megahertz serial crystallography measurements with hard X-rays and give guidance for the design of such experiments.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)574-584
Number of pages11
JournalIUCrJ
Volume5
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2018

Fingerprint

X ray lasers
Crystallography
Free electron lasers
X Ray Crystallography
free electron lasers
crystallography
delivery
Lasers
X-Rays
Electrons
X rays
x rays
Explosions
Diffraction
Proteins
explosions
Microcrystals
Gas dynamics
Liquids
proteins

Keywords

  • FELs
  • Megahertz repetition rates
  • X-ray FEL pulse trains
  • X-ray free-electron lasers

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Biochemistry
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics

Cite this

Wiedorn, M. O., Awel, S., Morgan, A. J., Ayyer, K., Gevorkov, Y., Fleckenstein, H., ... Chapman, H. N. (2018). Rapid sample delivery for megahertz serial crystallography at X-ray FELs. IUCrJ, 5, 574-584. https://doi.org/10.1107/S2052252518008369

Rapid sample delivery for megahertz serial crystallography at X-ray FELs. / Wiedorn, Max O.; Awel, Salah; Morgan, Andrew J.; Ayyer, Kartik; Gevorkov, Yaroslav; Fleckenstein, Holger; Roth, Nils; Adriano, Luigi; Bean, Richard; Beyerlein, Kenneth R.; Chen, Joe; Coe, Jesse; Cruz-Mazo, Francisco; Ekeberg, Tomas; Graceffa, Rita; Heymann, Michael; Horke, Daniel A.; Knoška, Juraj; Mariani, Valerio; Nazari, Reza; Oberthür, Dominik; Samanta, Amit K.; Sierra, Raymond G.; Stan, Claudiu A.; Yefanov, Oleksandr; Rompotis, Dimitrios; Correa, Jonathan; Erk, Benjamin; Treusch, Rolf; Schulz, Joachim; Hogue, Brenda; Gañán-Calvo, Alfonso M.; Fromme, Petra; Küpper, Jochen; Rode, Andrei V.; Bajt, Saša; Kirian, Richard; Chapman, Henry N.

In: IUCrJ, Vol. 5, 01.01.2018, p. 574-584.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Wiedorn, MO, Awel, S, Morgan, AJ, Ayyer, K, Gevorkov, Y, Fleckenstein, H, Roth, N, Adriano, L, Bean, R, Beyerlein, KR, Chen, J, Coe, J, Cruz-Mazo, F, Ekeberg, T, Graceffa, R, Heymann, M, Horke, DA, Knoška, J, Mariani, V, Nazari, R, Oberthür, D, Samanta, AK, Sierra, RG, Stan, CA, Yefanov, O, Rompotis, D, Correa, J, Erk, B, Treusch, R, Schulz, J, Hogue, B, Gañán-Calvo, AM, Fromme, P, Küpper, J, Rode, AV, Bajt, S, Kirian, R & Chapman, HN 2018, 'Rapid sample delivery for megahertz serial crystallography at X-ray FELs' IUCrJ, vol. 5, pp. 574-584. https://doi.org/10.1107/S2052252518008369
Wiedorn MO, Awel S, Morgan AJ, Ayyer K, Gevorkov Y, Fleckenstein H et al. Rapid sample delivery for megahertz serial crystallography at X-ray FELs. IUCrJ. 2018 Jan 1;5:574-584. https://doi.org/10.1107/S2052252518008369
Wiedorn, Max O. ; Awel, Salah ; Morgan, Andrew J. ; Ayyer, Kartik ; Gevorkov, Yaroslav ; Fleckenstein, Holger ; Roth, Nils ; Adriano, Luigi ; Bean, Richard ; Beyerlein, Kenneth R. ; Chen, Joe ; Coe, Jesse ; Cruz-Mazo, Francisco ; Ekeberg, Tomas ; Graceffa, Rita ; Heymann, Michael ; Horke, Daniel A. ; Knoška, Juraj ; Mariani, Valerio ; Nazari, Reza ; Oberthür, Dominik ; Samanta, Amit K. ; Sierra, Raymond G. ; Stan, Claudiu A. ; Yefanov, Oleksandr ; Rompotis, Dimitrios ; Correa, Jonathan ; Erk, Benjamin ; Treusch, Rolf ; Schulz, Joachim ; Hogue, Brenda ; Gañán-Calvo, Alfonso M. ; Fromme, Petra ; Küpper, Jochen ; Rode, Andrei V. ; Bajt, Saša ; Kirian, Richard ; Chapman, Henry N. / Rapid sample delivery for megahertz serial crystallography at X-ray FELs. In: IUCrJ. 2018 ; Vol. 5. pp. 574-584.
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abstract = "Liquid microjets are a common means of delivering protein crystals to the focus of X-ray free-electron lasers (FELs) for serial femtosecond crystallography measurements. The high X-ray intensity in the focus initiates an explosion of the microjet and sample. With the advent of X-ray FELs with megahertz rates, the typical velocities of these jets must be increased significantly in order to replenish the damaged material in time for the subsequent measurement with the next X-ray pulse. This work reports the results of a megahertz serial diffraction experiment at the FLASH FEL facility using 4.3 nm radiation. The operation of gas-dynamic nozzles that produce liquid microjets with velocities greater than 80 m s-1 was demonstrated. Furthermore, this article provides optical images of X-ray-induced explosions together with Bragg diffraction from protein microcrystals exposed to trains of X-ray pulses repeating at rates of up to 4.5 MHz. The results indicate the feasibility for megahertz serial crystallography measurements with hard X-rays and give guidance for the design of such experiments.",
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T1 - Rapid sample delivery for megahertz serial crystallography at X-ray FELs

AU - Wiedorn, Max O.

AU - Awel, Salah

AU - Morgan, Andrew J.

AU - Ayyer, Kartik

AU - Gevorkov, Yaroslav

AU - Fleckenstein, Holger

AU - Roth, Nils

AU - Adriano, Luigi

AU - Bean, Richard

AU - Beyerlein, Kenneth R.

AU - Chen, Joe

AU - Coe, Jesse

AU - Cruz-Mazo, Francisco

AU - Ekeberg, Tomas

AU - Graceffa, Rita

AU - Heymann, Michael

AU - Horke, Daniel A.

AU - Knoška, Juraj

AU - Mariani, Valerio

AU - Nazari, Reza

AU - Oberthür, Dominik

AU - Samanta, Amit K.

AU - Sierra, Raymond G.

AU - Stan, Claudiu A.

AU - Yefanov, Oleksandr

AU - Rompotis, Dimitrios

AU - Correa, Jonathan

AU - Erk, Benjamin

AU - Treusch, Rolf

AU - Schulz, Joachim

AU - Hogue, Brenda

AU - Gañán-Calvo, Alfonso M.

AU - Fromme, Petra

AU - Küpper, Jochen

AU - Rode, Andrei V.

AU - Bajt, Saša

AU - Kirian, Richard

AU - Chapman, Henry N.

PY - 2018/1/1

Y1 - 2018/1/1

N2 - Liquid microjets are a common means of delivering protein crystals to the focus of X-ray free-electron lasers (FELs) for serial femtosecond crystallography measurements. The high X-ray intensity in the focus initiates an explosion of the microjet and sample. With the advent of X-ray FELs with megahertz rates, the typical velocities of these jets must be increased significantly in order to replenish the damaged material in time for the subsequent measurement with the next X-ray pulse. This work reports the results of a megahertz serial diffraction experiment at the FLASH FEL facility using 4.3 nm radiation. The operation of gas-dynamic nozzles that produce liquid microjets with velocities greater than 80 m s-1 was demonstrated. Furthermore, this article provides optical images of X-ray-induced explosions together with Bragg diffraction from protein microcrystals exposed to trains of X-ray pulses repeating at rates of up to 4.5 MHz. The results indicate the feasibility for megahertz serial crystallography measurements with hard X-rays and give guidance for the design of such experiments.

AB - Liquid microjets are a common means of delivering protein crystals to the focus of X-ray free-electron lasers (FELs) for serial femtosecond crystallography measurements. The high X-ray intensity in the focus initiates an explosion of the microjet and sample. With the advent of X-ray FELs with megahertz rates, the typical velocities of these jets must be increased significantly in order to replenish the damaged material in time for the subsequent measurement with the next X-ray pulse. This work reports the results of a megahertz serial diffraction experiment at the FLASH FEL facility using 4.3 nm radiation. The operation of gas-dynamic nozzles that produce liquid microjets with velocities greater than 80 m s-1 was demonstrated. Furthermore, this article provides optical images of X-ray-induced explosions together with Bragg diffraction from protein microcrystals exposed to trains of X-ray pulses repeating at rates of up to 4.5 MHz. The results indicate the feasibility for megahertz serial crystallography measurements with hard X-rays and give guidance for the design of such experiments.

KW - FELs

KW - Megahertz repetition rates

KW - X-ray FEL pulse trains

KW - X-ray free-electron lasers

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