Radiation hardened by design digital I/O for high SEE and TID immunity

Lawrence T. Clark, Kyle E. Nielsen, Keith Holbert

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Level shifting radiation hardening by design input and output (I/O) pads on a 90 nm process using triple modular redundancy for single event effect (SEE) mitigation with high total ionizing dose (TID) immunity are described. The designs use annular NMOS transistors for both thin and thick gate transistors. SEE mitigation is experimentally demonstrated by heavy ion measurements with LETeff up to 220 MeV-cm2/mg with no failures. Measurements of the I/O standby leakage current after TID irradiation to 2 Mrad(Si) show no standby current increase.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number5341404
Pages (from-to)3408-3414
Number of pages7
JournalIEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science
Issue number6
StatePublished - Dec 2009


  • Electrostatic discharge protection
  • Input-output (I/O) circuits
  • Radiation hardening by design (RHBD)
  • Single event effects (SEEs)
  • Single event transients (SETs)
  • Total ionizing dose (TID)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nuclear and High Energy Physics
  • Nuclear Energy and Engineering
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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