Quantitative measurement of nanoscale electrostatic potentials and charges using off-axis electron holography: Developments and opportunities

Martha McCartney, Rafal E. Dunin-Borkowski, David Smith

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Scopus citations


Off-axis electron holography has evolved into a powerful electron-microscopy-based technique for characterizing electromagnetic fields with nanometer-scale resolution. In this paper, we present a review of the application of off-axis electron holography to the quantitative measurement of electrostatic potentials and charge density distributions. We begin with a short overview of the theoretical and experimental basis of the technique. Practical aspects of phase imaging, sample preparation and microscope operation are outlined briefly. Applications of off-axis electron holography to a wide range of materials are then described in more detail. Finally, challenges and future opportunities for electron holography investigations of electrostatic fields and charge density distributions are presented.

Original languageEnglish (US)
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019



  • Electrical biasing
  • Electrostatic potentials
  • Fringing fields
  • Off-axis electron holography
  • Phase imaging
  • Polarization fields

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Instrumentation

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