The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 structural polyprotein Pr55 Gag is necessary and sufficient for the assembly of virus-like particles on cellular membranes. Previous studies demonstrated the importance of the capsid C-terminal domain (CA-CTD), nucleocapsid (NC), and membrane association in Gag-Gag interactions, but the relationships between these factors remain unclear. In this study, we systematically altered the CA-CTD, NC, and the ability to bind membrane to determine the relative contributions of, and interplay between, these factors. To directly measure Gag-Gag interactions, we utilized chimeric Gag-fluorescent protein fusion constructs and a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) stoichiometry method. We found that the CA-CTD is essential for Gag-Gag interactions at the plasma membrane, as the disruption of the CA-CTD has severe impacts on FRET. Data from experiments in which wild-type (WT) and CA-CTD mutant Gag molecules are coexpressed support the idea that the CA-CTD dimerization interface consists of two reciprocal interactions. Mutations in NC have less-severe impacts on FRET between normally myristoylated Gag proteins than do CA-CTD mutations. Notably, when nonmyristoylated Gag interacts with WT Gag, NC is essential for FRET despite the presence of the CA-CTD. In contrast, constitutively enhanced membrane binding eliminates the need for NC to produce a WT level of FRET. These results from cell-based experiments suggest a model in which both membrane binding and NC-RNA interactions serve similar scaffolding functions so that one can functionally compensate for a defect in the other.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Insect Science