Matched-field methods find source location by matching the measured signal field with the modeled signal field. The resulted ambiguity output is often characterized by a multimodal structure. At high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), the peak at the true source position is a global maximum and can be located accurately; below some threshold SNR, the true peak is easily obscured by other ambiguous peaks, leading to a significantly increased localization error. To analyze this threshold performance behavior, a quantitative approach for error analysis has previously been developed in the context of the maximum likelihood estimate (MLE) with spatially-white noise. In this paper, the same approach is generalized to work for spatially-correlated noise field introduced by discrete interferences and/or surface distribution sources.
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