Quantification and source apportionment of the methane emission flux from the city of Indianapolis

M. O.L. Cambaliza, P. B. Shepson, J. Bogner, D. R. Caulton, B. Stirm, C. Sweeney, S. A. Montzka, Kevin Gurney, K. Spokas, O. E. Salmon, T. N. Lavoie, A. Hendricks, K. Mays, J. Turnbull, B. R. Miller, T. Lauvaux, K. Davis, A. Karion, B. Moser, C. MillerC. Obermeyer, J. Whetstone, K. Prasad, N. Miles, S. Richardson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

42 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We report the CH4 emission flux from the city of Indianapolis, IN, the site of the Indianapolis Flux Experiment (INFLUX) project for developing, assessing, and improving top-down and bottom-up approaches for quantifying urban greenhouse gas emissions. Using an aircraft-based mass balance approach, we find that the average CH4 emission rate from five flight experiments in 2011 is 135 ± 58 (1σ) moles s-1 (7800 ± 3300 kg hr-1). The effective per capita CH4 emission rate for Indianapolis is 77 kg CH4 person-1 yr-1, a figure that is less than the national anthropogenic CH4 emission (∼91 kg CH4 person-1 yr-1) but considerably larger than the global figure (∼48 kg CH4 person-1 yr-1). We consistently observed elevated CH4 concentrations at specific coordinates along our flight transects downwind of the city. Inflight investigations as well as back trajectories using measured wind directions showed that the elevated concentrations originated from the southwest side of the city where a landfill and a natural gas transmission regulating station (TRS) are located. Street level mobile measurements downwind of the landfill and the TRS supported the results of aircraft-based data, and were used to quantify the relative contributions from the two sources. We find that the CH4 emission from the TRS was negligible relative to the landfill, which was responsible for 33 ± 10% of the citywide emission flux. A regression of propane versus methane from aircraft flask samples suggests that the remaining citywide CH4 emissions (∼67%) derive from the natural gas distribution system. We discuss the combination of surface mobile observations and aircraft city-wide flux measurements to determine the total flux and apportionment to important sources.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number000037
JournalElementa
Volume3
DOIs
StatePublished - 2015

Fingerprint

Methane
methane
Fluxes
Land fill
Aircraft
aircraft
Natural gas
landfill
natural gas
Gas emissions
Greenhouse gases
Propane
flight
bottom-up approach
Experiments
Trajectories
source apportionment
city
propane
flux measurement

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atmospheric Science
  • Geology
  • Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
  • Oceanography
  • Ecology
  • Environmental Engineering

Cite this

Cambaliza, M. O. L., Shepson, P. B., Bogner, J., Caulton, D. R., Stirm, B., Sweeney, C., ... Richardson, S. (2015). Quantification and source apportionment of the methane emission flux from the city of Indianapolis. Elementa, 3, [000037]. https://doi.org/10.12952/journal.elementa.000037

Quantification and source apportionment of the methane emission flux from the city of Indianapolis. / Cambaliza, M. O.L.; Shepson, P. B.; Bogner, J.; Caulton, D. R.; Stirm, B.; Sweeney, C.; Montzka, S. A.; Gurney, Kevin; Spokas, K.; Salmon, O. E.; Lavoie, T. N.; Hendricks, A.; Mays, K.; Turnbull, J.; Miller, B. R.; Lauvaux, T.; Davis, K.; Karion, A.; Moser, B.; Miller, C.; Obermeyer, C.; Whetstone, J.; Prasad, K.; Miles, N.; Richardson, S.

In: Elementa, Vol. 3, 000037, 2015.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Cambaliza, MOL, Shepson, PB, Bogner, J, Caulton, DR, Stirm, B, Sweeney, C, Montzka, SA, Gurney, K, Spokas, K, Salmon, OE, Lavoie, TN, Hendricks, A, Mays, K, Turnbull, J, Miller, BR, Lauvaux, T, Davis, K, Karion, A, Moser, B, Miller, C, Obermeyer, C, Whetstone, J, Prasad, K, Miles, N & Richardson, S 2015, 'Quantification and source apportionment of the methane emission flux from the city of Indianapolis', Elementa, vol. 3, 000037. https://doi.org/10.12952/journal.elementa.000037
Cambaliza, M. O.L. ; Shepson, P. B. ; Bogner, J. ; Caulton, D. R. ; Stirm, B. ; Sweeney, C. ; Montzka, S. A. ; Gurney, Kevin ; Spokas, K. ; Salmon, O. E. ; Lavoie, T. N. ; Hendricks, A. ; Mays, K. ; Turnbull, J. ; Miller, B. R. ; Lauvaux, T. ; Davis, K. ; Karion, A. ; Moser, B. ; Miller, C. ; Obermeyer, C. ; Whetstone, J. ; Prasad, K. ; Miles, N. ; Richardson, S. / Quantification and source apportionment of the methane emission flux from the city of Indianapolis. In: Elementa. 2015 ; Vol. 3.
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AU - Cambaliza, M. O.L.

AU - Shepson, P. B.

AU - Bogner, J.

AU - Caulton, D. R.

AU - Stirm, B.

AU - Sweeney, C.

AU - Montzka, S. A.

AU - Gurney, Kevin

AU - Spokas, K.

AU - Salmon, O. E.

AU - Lavoie, T. N.

AU - Hendricks, A.

AU - Mays, K.

AU - Turnbull, J.

AU - Miller, B. R.

AU - Lauvaux, T.

AU - Davis, K.

AU - Karion, A.

AU - Moser, B.

AU - Miller, C.

AU - Obermeyer, C.

AU - Whetstone, J.

AU - Prasad, K.

AU - Miles, N.

AU - Richardson, S.

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N2 - We report the CH4 emission flux from the city of Indianapolis, IN, the site of the Indianapolis Flux Experiment (INFLUX) project for developing, assessing, and improving top-down and bottom-up approaches for quantifying urban greenhouse gas emissions. Using an aircraft-based mass balance approach, we find that the average CH4 emission rate from five flight experiments in 2011 is 135 ± 58 (1σ) moles s-1 (7800 ± 3300 kg hr-1). The effective per capita CH4 emission rate for Indianapolis is 77 kg CH4 person-1 yr-1, a figure that is less than the national anthropogenic CH4 emission (∼91 kg CH4 person-1 yr-1) but considerably larger than the global figure (∼48 kg CH4 person-1 yr-1). We consistently observed elevated CH4 concentrations at specific coordinates along our flight transects downwind of the city. Inflight investigations as well as back trajectories using measured wind directions showed that the elevated concentrations originated from the southwest side of the city where a landfill and a natural gas transmission regulating station (TRS) are located. Street level mobile measurements downwind of the landfill and the TRS supported the results of aircraft-based data, and were used to quantify the relative contributions from the two sources. We find that the CH4 emission from the TRS was negligible relative to the landfill, which was responsible for 33 ± 10% of the citywide emission flux. A regression of propane versus methane from aircraft flask samples suggests that the remaining citywide CH4 emissions (∼67%) derive from the natural gas distribution system. We discuss the combination of surface mobile observations and aircraft city-wide flux measurements to determine the total flux and apportionment to important sources.

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