Complex (CS)- and simple-spike (SS) discharge from single Purkinje cells (Pc) in the posterolateral cerebellum of two monkeys was recorded during a visually guided reach-touch task. A visual target appeared (TA) off-gaze at a random location on a screen. On initiation of arm reach, the target disappeared, then reappeared (TR) after a fixed delay. TR was either at the same location (baseline condition) or a shifted location at a fixed distance and direction from TA location (shift condition). Across trials, we observed one or two peaks of CS activity, depending on the reach condition. The first CS (T1 CS) peak was tuned to the location of TA on the screen, following TA by ∼150 ms. The second CS (T2 CS) peak occurred only in the shift condition, was tuned to the shift location of TR, and followed TR by ∼150 ms. The locational preferences of T1 and T2 CS peaks were the same. T1 and T2 CSs preceded saccades to TA and TR at the preferred location and occurred during reaches with either arm. T1 CSs occurred during trials in which the target appeared, and there was a saccade to target, but no subsequent arm reach followed. SS firing varied with TA/TR in the same preferred location as for the accompanying CS. We conclude that posterolateral Pc CS and SS firing changes following an off-gaze visual target appearance in a preferred location when there is a subsequent saccade to that location.
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