A vast spectrum of pulmonary pathologic conditions occurs in association with chronic liver diseases, and clinically important manifestations, such as arterial hypoxemia, can result. Both pulmonary vascular and parenchymal abnormalities can contribute to the dysfunction, as evidenced by results of pulmonary function tests and gas exchange studies. The clinical implications of identifying such pulmonary problems range from alleviation of symptoms, especially dyspnea, to comprehensive assessment of patients before and after liver transplantation. Physicians should be aware of these potential pulmonary disorders that can complicate liver disease and liver transplantation so that management of affected patients can be improved.
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