Protein kinase PKR-dependent activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases occurs through mitochondrial adapter IPS-1 and is antagonized by vaccinia virus E3L

Ping Zhang, Jeffrey Langland, Bertram Jacobs, Charles E. Samuel

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Abstract

The p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) play important roles in the host innate immune response. The protein kinase regulated by RNA (PKR) is implicated in p38 MAPK activation in response to proinflammatory signals in mouse embryonic fibroblasts. To test the role of PKR in the activation of p38 and JNK MAPKs in human cells following viral infection, HeLa cells made stably deficient in PKR by using an RNA interference strategy were compared to cells with sufficient PKR. The phosphorylation of both p38 and JNK in cells with sufficient PKR was activated following either infection with an E3L deletion (ΔE3L) mutant of vaccinia virus or transfection with double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) in the absence of infection with wild-type vaccinia virus. The depletion of PKR by stable knockdown impaired the phosphorylation of both p38 and JNK induced by either the ΔE3L mutant virus or dsRNA but not that induced by tumor necrosis factor alpha. The PKR-dependent activation of MAPKs in ΔE3L mutant-infected cells was abolished by treatment with cytosine β-D-arabinoside. The complementation of PKR-deficient cells with the human PKR wild-type protein, but not with the PKR catalytic mutant (K296R) protein, restored p38 and JNK phosphorylation following ΔE3L mutant virus infection. Transient small interfering RNA knockdown established that the p38 and JNK kinase activation following ΔE3L infection was dependent upon RIG-I-like receptor signal transduction pathway components, including the mitochondrial adapter IPS-1 protein.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)5718-5725
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Virology
Volume83
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 2009

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eIF-2 Kinase
Vaccinia virus
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
mitogen-activated protein kinase
protein kinases
Phosphotransferases
phosphotransferases (kinases)
mutants
mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase
phosphorylation
infection
Double-Stranded RNA
double-stranded RNA
Phosphorylation
Virus Diseases
cells
Infection
viruses
proteins
JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology
  • Virology

Cite this

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title = "Protein kinase PKR-dependent activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases occurs through mitochondrial adapter IPS-1 and is antagonized by vaccinia virus E3L",
abstract = "The p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) play important roles in the host innate immune response. The protein kinase regulated by RNA (PKR) is implicated in p38 MAPK activation in response to proinflammatory signals in mouse embryonic fibroblasts. To test the role of PKR in the activation of p38 and JNK MAPKs in human cells following viral infection, HeLa cells made stably deficient in PKR by using an RNA interference strategy were compared to cells with sufficient PKR. The phosphorylation of both p38 and JNK in cells with sufficient PKR was activated following either infection with an E3L deletion (ΔE3L) mutant of vaccinia virus or transfection with double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) in the absence of infection with wild-type vaccinia virus. The depletion of PKR by stable knockdown impaired the phosphorylation of both p38 and JNK induced by either the ΔE3L mutant virus or dsRNA but not that induced by tumor necrosis factor alpha. The PKR-dependent activation of MAPKs in ΔE3L mutant-infected cells was abolished by treatment with cytosine β-D-arabinoside. The complementation of PKR-deficient cells with the human PKR wild-type protein, but not with the PKR catalytic mutant (K296R) protein, restored p38 and JNK phosphorylation following ΔE3L mutant virus infection. Transient small interfering RNA knockdown established that the p38 and JNK kinase activation following ΔE3L infection was dependent upon RIG-I-like receptor signal transduction pathway components, including the mitochondrial adapter IPS-1 protein.",
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AU - Samuel, Charles E.

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