The authors discuss the dipole vibrational modes that predominate in the energy-loss spectra of ionic materials below 1 eV, concentrating on thin-film specimens of typical transmission electron microscopy (TEM) thickness. The thickness dependence of the intensity is shown to be a useful guide to the bulk or surface character of vibrational peaks. The lateral and depth resolution of the energy-loss signal is investigated with the aid of finite-element calculations.
- radiation damage
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