Double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) with outer metallic (M) or semiconducting (S) shells were sorted by density-gradient ultracentrifugation and examined by Raman spectroscopy and in situ Raman spectroelectrochemistry. The combination of sorting and the selection of appropriate laser excitation energies allowed the disentanglement of the effects of different variations of the electronic type (M or S) of the inner and outer tubes in DWCNTs on the doping behavior and charge transfer between the inner and outer walls. Charge transfer from the outer tube to the inner tube occurs only if the electronic states of the outer tube are filled with electrons or holes, and if these filled states are higher in energy than those of the inner tube. Therefore, each combination of inner and outer tube (i.e., inner@outer: M@M, M@S, S@M, and S@S) exhibits a distinct behavior. The potential needed to observe the effects of charge transfer between the inner and outer tubes is found to increase in the following order: M@M < S@M < M@S < S@S.
- Raman spectroscopy
- density-gradient ultracentrifugation
- double-walled carbon nanotubes
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Organic Chemistry