Principles for studying contextual variations in peer experiences: Rules for peer radicals

William M. Bukowski, Melanie Dirks, Erika Infantino, Dawn DeLay

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Studies of contextual variations in the features and effects of children's experiences with agemates have enriched our understanding of the basic functioning of the peer system. They have also expanded our understanding of specificity of developmental processes. Using existing research on contextual variations in peer relations as our point of departure, our “Call for Action” consists of eight “rules” designed to guide research on the role of peer relations in the effects of culture and socioeconomic status and inequality on development. These rules are concerned with how peer researchers conceptualize the contexts they study, how they measure and study the features of these contexts, and how they engage with other researchers interested in contextual analyses. The goal of our “Call To Action” is to promote the conceptual clarity and empirical power of research on contextual variability in the features and effects of experiences with peers.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number101295
JournalJournal of Applied Developmental Psychology
StatePublished - Jul 1 2021


  • Culture
  • Peer relations
  • Socioeconomic inequality
  • Socioeconomic status

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Developmental and Educational Psychology


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