Abstract

The social–ecological systems that provide ecosystem services to society can be viewed as complex adaptive systems (CAS), characterized by a high level of interconnectedness, potential for non-linear change, and inherent uncertainty and surprise. This chapter focuses on whether resilience of ecosystem services is enhanced by management based on what we refer to as ‘CAS thinking’, meaning a mental model for interpreting the world that recognizes these CAS properties. We present evidence that CAS thinking has contributed to change in management approaches in the Kruger National Park, Great Barrier Reef, Tisza river basin and Chile among other places. However, attempts to introduce CAS thinking may compromise resilience when complexity is not effectively communicated, when uncomfortable institutional change is required or when CAS thinking is not able to evolve with changing contexts or is not equitably shared. We suggest that CAS thinking can be fostered by the following: adopting a systems framework; tolerating and embracing uncertainty; investigating critical thresholds and non-linearities; acknowledging epistemological pluralism; matching institutions to CAS processes; and recognizing barriers to cognitive change. Key questions for future research on this principle relate to communicating CAS thinking, the role of power, the importance of an organizational level of CAS thinking, and institutional barriers.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationPrinciples for Building Resilience: Sustaining Ecosystem Services in Social-Ecological Systems
PublisherCambridge University Press
Pages142-173
Number of pages32
ISBN (Print)9781316014240, 9781107082656
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2015

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ecosystem service
barrier reef
nonlinearity
national park
river basin
world
society

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Earth and Planetary Sciences(all)
  • Environmental Science(all)

Cite this

Bohensky, E. L., Evans, L. S., Anderies, J., Biggs, R., & Fabricius, C. (2015). Principle 4 – Foster complex adaptive systems thinking. In Principles for Building Resilience: Sustaining Ecosystem Services in Social-Ecological Systems (pp. 142-173). Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781316014240.007

Principle 4 – Foster complex adaptive systems thinking. / Bohensky, Erin L.; Evans, Louisa S.; Anderies, John; Biggs, Reinette; Fabricius, Christo.

Principles for Building Resilience: Sustaining Ecosystem Services in Social-Ecological Systems. Cambridge University Press, 2015. p. 142-173.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Bohensky, EL, Evans, LS, Anderies, J, Biggs, R & Fabricius, C 2015, Principle 4 – Foster complex adaptive systems thinking. in Principles for Building Resilience: Sustaining Ecosystem Services in Social-Ecological Systems. Cambridge University Press, pp. 142-173. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781316014240.007
Bohensky EL, Evans LS, Anderies J, Biggs R, Fabricius C. Principle 4 – Foster complex adaptive systems thinking. In Principles for Building Resilience: Sustaining Ecosystem Services in Social-Ecological Systems. Cambridge University Press. 2015. p. 142-173 https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781316014240.007
Bohensky, Erin L. ; Evans, Louisa S. ; Anderies, John ; Biggs, Reinette ; Fabricius, Christo. / Principle 4 – Foster complex adaptive systems thinking. Principles for Building Resilience: Sustaining Ecosystem Services in Social-Ecological Systems. Cambridge University Press, 2015. pp. 142-173
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