The paper provides a review of the electrocution and collision hazards of overhead distribution lines of large birds, particularly raptors, which can be reduced through modifications to existing design standards. The modifications to overhead distribution lines discussed in the paper include pole-line reconfiguration, the use of cover-up materials, perch deterrents, and line markers. The paper also discusses the effectiveness of these measures and research that is under way to develop tools to better understand where the problems are occurring and to determine if existing mitigating measures are working.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Energy Engineering and Power Technology
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering