Preschoolers' beliefs about sex and age differences in emotionality

Mariss Karbon, Richard Fabes, Gustavo Carlo, Carol Martin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

13 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The goal of the present study was to assess preschoolers' beliefs about the frequency and intensity with which boys, girls, women, and men experience anger, sadness, and happiness. Sixty-seven middle-class preschool children (35 girls, 32 boys) were presented with drawings of adult and child figures of each sex, and were asked to rate how frequently and intensely the emotions were felt (91% of the children were white; the remainder were primarily black). Children's gender stereotyped beliefs were particularly strong for sadness and appeared to be based on a deficit-experience model for males. Sex of target differences also were found for children's beliefs about anger (favoring males). However, the sex difference in anger was based more on the degree to which anger is believed to be experienced rather than on differences in beliefs regarding males' and females' capacity to experience anger. Age of target differences were also found for sadness and anger, but not for happiness. It was concluded that preschoolers' beliefs about differences in emotions are complex, and vary as a function of the sex and age of the target person, and as a function of the specific emotion.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)377-390
Number of pages14
JournalSex Roles
Volume27
Issue number7-8
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 1992

Fingerprint

emotionality
age difference
Anger
anger
Sex Characteristics
Happiness
Emotions
emotion
happiness
experience
Preschool Children
preschool child
middle class
deficit
human being
gender

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Gender Studies
  • Social Psychology
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Psychology(all)

Cite this

Preschoolers' beliefs about sex and age differences in emotionality. / Karbon, Mariss; Fabes, Richard; Carlo, Gustavo; Martin, Carol.

In: Sex Roles, Vol. 27, No. 7-8, 10.1992, p. 377-390.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Karbon, Mariss ; Fabes, Richard ; Carlo, Gustavo ; Martin, Carol. / Preschoolers' beliefs about sex and age differences in emotionality. In: Sex Roles. 1992 ; Vol. 27, No. 7-8. pp. 377-390.
@article{a196b464c86c4876840694083bd0f4d0,
title = "Preschoolers' beliefs about sex and age differences in emotionality",
abstract = "The goal of the present study was to assess preschoolers' beliefs about the frequency and intensity with which boys, girls, women, and men experience anger, sadness, and happiness. Sixty-seven middle-class preschool children (35 girls, 32 boys) were presented with drawings of adult and child figures of each sex, and were asked to rate how frequently and intensely the emotions were felt (91{\%} of the children were white; the remainder were primarily black). Children's gender stereotyped beliefs were particularly strong for sadness and appeared to be based on a deficit-experience model for males. Sex of target differences also were found for children's beliefs about anger (favoring males). However, the sex difference in anger was based more on the degree to which anger is believed to be experienced rather than on differences in beliefs regarding males' and females' capacity to experience anger. Age of target differences were also found for sadness and anger, but not for happiness. It was concluded that preschoolers' beliefs about differences in emotions are complex, and vary as a function of the sex and age of the target person, and as a function of the specific emotion.",
author = "Mariss Karbon and Richard Fabes and Gustavo Carlo and Carol Martin",
year = "1992",
month = "10",
doi = "10.1007/BF00289946",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "27",
pages = "377--390",
journal = "Sex Roles: A Journal of Research",
issn = "0360-0025",
publisher = "Springer New York",
number = "7-8",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Preschoolers' beliefs about sex and age differences in emotionality

AU - Karbon, Mariss

AU - Fabes, Richard

AU - Carlo, Gustavo

AU - Martin, Carol

PY - 1992/10

Y1 - 1992/10

N2 - The goal of the present study was to assess preschoolers' beliefs about the frequency and intensity with which boys, girls, women, and men experience anger, sadness, and happiness. Sixty-seven middle-class preschool children (35 girls, 32 boys) were presented with drawings of adult and child figures of each sex, and were asked to rate how frequently and intensely the emotions were felt (91% of the children were white; the remainder were primarily black). Children's gender stereotyped beliefs were particularly strong for sadness and appeared to be based on a deficit-experience model for males. Sex of target differences also were found for children's beliefs about anger (favoring males). However, the sex difference in anger was based more on the degree to which anger is believed to be experienced rather than on differences in beliefs regarding males' and females' capacity to experience anger. Age of target differences were also found for sadness and anger, but not for happiness. It was concluded that preschoolers' beliefs about differences in emotions are complex, and vary as a function of the sex and age of the target person, and as a function of the specific emotion.

AB - The goal of the present study was to assess preschoolers' beliefs about the frequency and intensity with which boys, girls, women, and men experience anger, sadness, and happiness. Sixty-seven middle-class preschool children (35 girls, 32 boys) were presented with drawings of adult and child figures of each sex, and were asked to rate how frequently and intensely the emotions were felt (91% of the children were white; the remainder were primarily black). Children's gender stereotyped beliefs were particularly strong for sadness and appeared to be based on a deficit-experience model for males. Sex of target differences also were found for children's beliefs about anger (favoring males). However, the sex difference in anger was based more on the degree to which anger is believed to be experienced rather than on differences in beliefs regarding males' and females' capacity to experience anger. Age of target differences were also found for sadness and anger, but not for happiness. It was concluded that preschoolers' beliefs about differences in emotions are complex, and vary as a function of the sex and age of the target person, and as a function of the specific emotion.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=21144465939&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=21144465939&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1007/BF00289946

DO - 10.1007/BF00289946

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:21144465939

VL - 27

SP - 377

EP - 390

JO - Sex Roles: A Journal of Research

JF - Sex Roles: A Journal of Research

SN - 0360-0025

IS - 7-8

ER -