Predictors of Vocabulary Outcomes in Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing From Spanish-Speaking Families

Beatriz de Diego-Lázaro, Maria Restrepo, Allison Lee Sedey, Christine Yoshinaga-Itano

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    3 Scopus citations


    Purpose The goal of this study was to identify predictors of expressive vocabulary in young Spanish-speaking children who are deaf or hard of hearing living in the United States. Method This cross-sectional study considered 53 children with bilateral hearing loss between 8 and 34 months of age ( M = 24, SD = 6.9). Demographic variables, variables related to the hearing loss, and intervention variables were included in a hierarchical regression analysis to predict expressive vocabulary quotients from the MacArthur Inventario del Desarrollo de Habilidades Comunicativas (Communicative Development Inventories; Jackson-Maldonado et al., 2003 ). Results Chronological age, degree of hearing loss, functional hearing ability ratings, age of enrollment in early intervention, and the interaction between chronological age and age of intervention accounted for 61.5% of the vocabulary variance. Children who received intervention by 6 months of age achieved significantly higher vocabulary outcomes than children who started intervention later. Conclusion The children's mean vocabulary outcomes were below average when compared with hearing peers. This was especially true for older children, children with moderately-severe-to-profound hearing loss, and children who began intervention after 6 months of age. This delay in vocabulary outcomes has the potential to interfere with future reading and academic outcomes.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)113-125
    Number of pages13
    JournalLanguage, speech, and hearing services in schools
    Issue number1
    StatePublished - Jan 28 2019

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Language and Linguistics
    • Linguistics and Language
    • Speech and Hearing

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