The authors used structural equation modeling to examine expressed emotion (EE) in relatives of outpatients with panic disorder with agoraphobia (n = 42) or obsessive-compulsive disorder (n = 60). EE was examined as a function of patients' illness and personality and as a function of characteristics of relatives themselves. EE was operationalized in terms of hostility on the Camberwell Family Interview (C. E. Vaughn & J. P. Leff, 1976) and patients' ratings of their relatives' criticism (perceived criticism). Key findings include the identification of a characteristic of the relative (self-reported angry thoughts, feelings, and behaviors) that is directly linked to both hostility toward the patient and to perceived criticism, as well as a direct path between relatives' low rates of observed problem solving and their hostility toward the patient. Patient Pathology predicted perceived criticism but not observer-rated hostility.
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