Pre-trip expectations and post-trip satisfaction with marine tour interpretation in Hawaii: Applying the norm activation model

Kerrie Littlejohn, Mark D. Needham, Brian W. Szuster, Evan Jordan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

9 Scopus citations

Abstract

This article examines environmental education by focusing on recreationist expectations for interpretation on marine tours, satisfaction with this interpretation and whether expectations were met, and how these perceptions correlate with components of the norm activation model. Recreationists surveyed before and after tours to Molokini, Hawaii (n = 439) had high pre-trip expectations for interpretation (e.g., about reefs, history), but satisfaction was lower and expectations for many recreationists were not met. Those who had their expectations met had higher problem awareness and ascribed more responsibility (i.e., norm activation) than those who did not, suggesting that interpretation is desired and may promote pro-environmental behavior.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)202-212
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Environmental Education
Volume47
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 2 2016

Keywords

  • expectations
  • interpretation
  • marine tourism
  • norm activation
  • satisfaction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Environmental Science(all)

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