Potential induced degradation in c-Si glass-glass modules after extended damp heat stress

Farrukh ibne Mahmood, Akash Kumar, Muhammad Afridi, Govindasamy TamizhMani

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Traditional Glass-Backsheet (GB) photovoltaic (PV) modules have been the industry standard for a long time, but the Glass-Glass (GG) modules are quickly rising in popularity. PV modules installed in hot-humid climates with high string voltages can undergo potential induced degradation (PID). So far, to the best of our knowledge, only fresh modules with strong interfacial adhesion have been investigated for PID. However, in reality, the PV modules have weak interfacial adhesion after a few years of field exposure. Therefore, it is essential to evaluate PV modules with weakened interfaces. In this study, we investigated the PID susceptibility of PV modules with weakened interfaces after subjecting them to 2000 h of damp heat (DH2000) at 85 °C/85% relative humidity (RH) in an accelerated environmental chamber. Fresh GG modules were also stressed for PID to compare with PID degradation of DH-stressed modules. Pre- and post-characterization tests were done before, between, and after each stress method to determine the changes in electrical performance, cell metallization properties, and hotspot properties. It is observed that fresh GG modules showed little/no degradation (less than 1%) in maximum power (Pmax), whereas the GG modules that underwent sequential DH and PID degraded by 11% to 12%. Potential mechanisms for these degradations are also presented. The results presented in this study are critical for the industry, considering that the bifacial modules with GG construction will be dominant in the next 10 years.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)102-111
Number of pages10
JournalSolar Energy
StatePublished - Apr 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • Accelerated stress testing
  • Damp heat
  • Glass-glass modules
  • Photovoltaic reliability
  • Potential induced degradation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Materials Science(all)


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