Physical activity in relation to urban environments in 14 cities worldwide

A cross-sectional study

James F. Sallis, Ester Cerin, Terry L. Conway, Marc Adams, Lawrence D. Frank, Michael Pratt, Deborah Salvo, Jasper Schipperijn, Graham Smith, Kelli L. Cain, Rachel Davey, Jacqueline Kerr, Poh Chin Lai, Josef Mitáš, Rodrigo Reis, Olga L. Sarmiento, Grant Schofield, Jens Troelsen, Delfien Van Dyck, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij & 1 others Neville Owen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

270 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Physical inactivity is a global pandemic responsible for over 5 million deaths annually through its effects on multiple non-communicable diseases. We aimed to document how objectively measured attributes of the urban environment are related to objectively measured physical activity, in an international sample of adults. Methods: We based our analyses on the International Physical activity and Environment Network (IPEN) adult study, which was a coordinated, international, cross-sectional study. Participants were sampled from neighbourhoods with varied levels of walkability and socioeconomic status. The present analyses of data from the IPEN adult study included 6822 adults aged 18-66 years from 14 cities in ten countries on five continents. Indicators of walkability, public transport access, and park access were assessed in 1·0 km and 0·5 km street network buffers around each participant's residential address with geographic information systems. Mean daily minutes of moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity were measured with 4-7 days of accelerometer monitoring. Associations between environmental attributes and physical activity were estimated using generalised additive mixed models with gamma variance and logarithmic link functions. Results: Four of six environmental attributes were significantly, positively, and linearly related to physical activity in the single variable models: net residential density (exp[b] 1·006 [95% CI 1·003-1·009]; p=0·001), intersection density (1·069 [1·011-1·130]; p=0·019), public transport density (1·037 [1·018-1·056]; p=0·0007), and number of parks (1·146 [1·033-1·272]; p=0·010). Mixed land use and distance to nearest public transport point were not related to physical activity. The difference in physical activity between participants living in the most and least activity-friendly neighbourhoods ranged from 68 min/week to 89 min/week, which represents 45-59% of the 150 min/week recommended by guidelines. Interpretation: Design of urban environments has the potential to contribute substantially to physical activity. Similarity of findings across cities suggests the promise of engaging urban planning, transportation, and parks sectors in efforts to reduce the health burden of the global physical inactivity pandemic. Funding: Funding for coordination of the IPEN adult study, including the present analysis, was provided by the National Cancer Institute of National Institutes of Health (CA127296) with studies in each country funded by different sources.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalThe Lancet
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2016

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Cross-Sectional Studies
Pandemics
Environment Design
City Planning
Geographic Information Systems
National Cancer Institute (U.S.)
National Institutes of Health (U.S.)
Social Class
Buffers
Guidelines

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Physical activity in relation to urban environments in 14 cities worldwide : A cross-sectional study. / Sallis, James F.; Cerin, Ester; Conway, Terry L.; Adams, Marc; Frank, Lawrence D.; Pratt, Michael; Salvo, Deborah; Schipperijn, Jasper; Smith, Graham; Cain, Kelli L.; Davey, Rachel; Kerr, Jacqueline; Lai, Poh Chin; Mitáš, Josef; Reis, Rodrigo; Sarmiento, Olga L.; Schofield, Grant; Troelsen, Jens; Van Dyck, Delfien; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Owen, Neville.

In: The Lancet, 2016.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Sallis, JF, Cerin, E, Conway, TL, Adams, M, Frank, LD, Pratt, M, Salvo, D, Schipperijn, J, Smith, G, Cain, KL, Davey, R, Kerr, J, Lai, PC, Mitáš, J, Reis, R, Sarmiento, OL, Schofield, G, Troelsen, J, Van Dyck, D, De Bourdeaudhuij, I & Owen, N 2016, 'Physical activity in relation to urban environments in 14 cities worldwide: A cross-sectional study', The Lancet. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(15)01284-2
Sallis, James F. ; Cerin, Ester ; Conway, Terry L. ; Adams, Marc ; Frank, Lawrence D. ; Pratt, Michael ; Salvo, Deborah ; Schipperijn, Jasper ; Smith, Graham ; Cain, Kelli L. ; Davey, Rachel ; Kerr, Jacqueline ; Lai, Poh Chin ; Mitáš, Josef ; Reis, Rodrigo ; Sarmiento, Olga L. ; Schofield, Grant ; Troelsen, Jens ; Van Dyck, Delfien ; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse ; Owen, Neville. / Physical activity in relation to urban environments in 14 cities worldwide : A cross-sectional study. In: The Lancet. 2016.
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abstract = "Background: Physical inactivity is a global pandemic responsible for over 5 million deaths annually through its effects on multiple non-communicable diseases. We aimed to document how objectively measured attributes of the urban environment are related to objectively measured physical activity, in an international sample of adults. Methods: We based our analyses on the International Physical activity and Environment Network (IPEN) adult study, which was a coordinated, international, cross-sectional study. Participants were sampled from neighbourhoods with varied levels of walkability and socioeconomic status. The present analyses of data from the IPEN adult study included 6822 adults aged 18-66 years from 14 cities in ten countries on five continents. Indicators of walkability, public transport access, and park access were assessed in 1·0 km and 0·5 km street network buffers around each participant's residential address with geographic information systems. Mean daily minutes of moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity were measured with 4-7 days of accelerometer monitoring. Associations between environmental attributes and physical activity were estimated using generalised additive mixed models with gamma variance and logarithmic link functions. Results: Four of six environmental attributes were significantly, positively, and linearly related to physical activity in the single variable models: net residential density (exp[b] 1·006 [95{\%} CI 1·003-1·009]; p=0·001), intersection density (1·069 [1·011-1·130]; p=0·019), public transport density (1·037 [1·018-1·056]; p=0·0007), and number of parks (1·146 [1·033-1·272]; p=0·010). Mixed land use and distance to nearest public transport point were not related to physical activity. The difference in physical activity between participants living in the most and least activity-friendly neighbourhoods ranged from 68 min/week to 89 min/week, which represents 45-59{\%} of the 150 min/week recommended by guidelines. Interpretation: Design of urban environments has the potential to contribute substantially to physical activity. Similarity of findings across cities suggests the promise of engaging urban planning, transportation, and parks sectors in efforts to reduce the health burden of the global physical inactivity pandemic. Funding: Funding for coordination of the IPEN adult study, including the present analysis, was provided by the National Cancer Institute of National Institutes of Health (CA127296) with studies in each country funded by different sources.",
author = "Sallis, {James F.} and Ester Cerin and Conway, {Terry L.} and Marc Adams and Frank, {Lawrence D.} and Michael Pratt and Deborah Salvo and Jasper Schipperijn and Graham Smith and Cain, {Kelli L.} and Rachel Davey and Jacqueline Kerr and Lai, {Poh Chin} and Josef Mit{\'a}š and Rodrigo Reis and Sarmiento, {Olga L.} and Grant Schofield and Jens Troelsen and {Van Dyck}, Delfien and {De Bourdeaudhuij}, Ilse and Neville Owen",
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T1 - Physical activity in relation to urban environments in 14 cities worldwide

T2 - A cross-sectional study

AU - Sallis, James F.

AU - Cerin, Ester

AU - Conway, Terry L.

AU - Adams, Marc

AU - Frank, Lawrence D.

AU - Pratt, Michael

AU - Salvo, Deborah

AU - Schipperijn, Jasper

AU - Smith, Graham

AU - Cain, Kelli L.

AU - Davey, Rachel

AU - Kerr, Jacqueline

AU - Lai, Poh Chin

AU - Mitáš, Josef

AU - Reis, Rodrigo

AU - Sarmiento, Olga L.

AU - Schofield, Grant

AU - Troelsen, Jens

AU - Van Dyck, Delfien

AU - De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

AU - Owen, Neville

PY - 2016

Y1 - 2016

N2 - Background: Physical inactivity is a global pandemic responsible for over 5 million deaths annually through its effects on multiple non-communicable diseases. We aimed to document how objectively measured attributes of the urban environment are related to objectively measured physical activity, in an international sample of adults. Methods: We based our analyses on the International Physical activity and Environment Network (IPEN) adult study, which was a coordinated, international, cross-sectional study. Participants were sampled from neighbourhoods with varied levels of walkability and socioeconomic status. The present analyses of data from the IPEN adult study included 6822 adults aged 18-66 years from 14 cities in ten countries on five continents. Indicators of walkability, public transport access, and park access were assessed in 1·0 km and 0·5 km street network buffers around each participant's residential address with geographic information systems. Mean daily minutes of moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity were measured with 4-7 days of accelerometer monitoring. Associations between environmental attributes and physical activity were estimated using generalised additive mixed models with gamma variance and logarithmic link functions. Results: Four of six environmental attributes were significantly, positively, and linearly related to physical activity in the single variable models: net residential density (exp[b] 1·006 [95% CI 1·003-1·009]; p=0·001), intersection density (1·069 [1·011-1·130]; p=0·019), public transport density (1·037 [1·018-1·056]; p=0·0007), and number of parks (1·146 [1·033-1·272]; p=0·010). Mixed land use and distance to nearest public transport point were not related to physical activity. The difference in physical activity between participants living in the most and least activity-friendly neighbourhoods ranged from 68 min/week to 89 min/week, which represents 45-59% of the 150 min/week recommended by guidelines. Interpretation: Design of urban environments has the potential to contribute substantially to physical activity. Similarity of findings across cities suggests the promise of engaging urban planning, transportation, and parks sectors in efforts to reduce the health burden of the global physical inactivity pandemic. Funding: Funding for coordination of the IPEN adult study, including the present analysis, was provided by the National Cancer Institute of National Institutes of Health (CA127296) with studies in each country funded by different sources.

AB - Background: Physical inactivity is a global pandemic responsible for over 5 million deaths annually through its effects on multiple non-communicable diseases. We aimed to document how objectively measured attributes of the urban environment are related to objectively measured physical activity, in an international sample of adults. Methods: We based our analyses on the International Physical activity and Environment Network (IPEN) adult study, which was a coordinated, international, cross-sectional study. Participants were sampled from neighbourhoods with varied levels of walkability and socioeconomic status. The present analyses of data from the IPEN adult study included 6822 adults aged 18-66 years from 14 cities in ten countries on five continents. Indicators of walkability, public transport access, and park access were assessed in 1·0 km and 0·5 km street network buffers around each participant's residential address with geographic information systems. Mean daily minutes of moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity were measured with 4-7 days of accelerometer monitoring. Associations between environmental attributes and physical activity were estimated using generalised additive mixed models with gamma variance and logarithmic link functions. Results: Four of six environmental attributes were significantly, positively, and linearly related to physical activity in the single variable models: net residential density (exp[b] 1·006 [95% CI 1·003-1·009]; p=0·001), intersection density (1·069 [1·011-1·130]; p=0·019), public transport density (1·037 [1·018-1·056]; p=0·0007), and number of parks (1·146 [1·033-1·272]; p=0·010). Mixed land use and distance to nearest public transport point were not related to physical activity. The difference in physical activity between participants living in the most and least activity-friendly neighbourhoods ranged from 68 min/week to 89 min/week, which represents 45-59% of the 150 min/week recommended by guidelines. Interpretation: Design of urban environments has the potential to contribute substantially to physical activity. Similarity of findings across cities suggests the promise of engaging urban planning, transportation, and parks sectors in efforts to reduce the health burden of the global physical inactivity pandemic. Funding: Funding for coordination of the IPEN adult study, including the present analysis, was provided by the National Cancer Institute of National Institutes of Health (CA127296) with studies in each country funded by different sources.

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