Phosphorylation of serine 208 in the human vitamin D receptor. The predominant amino acid phosphorylated by casein kinase II, in vitro, and identification as a significant phosphorylation site in intact cells

Peter Jurutka, Jui Cheng Hsieh, Paul N. MacDonald, Christopher M. Terpening, Carol A. Haussier, Mark R. Haussler, G. Kerr Whitfield

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The human 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 receptor (hVDR), like other members of the steroid/thyroid receptor superfamily, has been observed to undergo rapid phosphorylation. We report here that the hVDR is a substrate for casein kinase II (CK-II), a regulatory enzyme of significance in the function of nuclear proteins. Intact hVDRs produced by in vitro transcription/translation or in a baculovirus overexpression system served as efficient substrates for purified bovine CK-II, and the magnitude of this phosphorylation was not affected by the addition of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. CK-II-catalyzed phosphorylation of truncated hVDRs suggested that phosphorylated residues may occur between Arg121 and Asp232, including the region of hVDR which we have previously demonstrated to contain a major site(s) of phosphorylation in intact cells (Jones, B. B., Jurutka, P. W., Haussler, C. A., Haussler, M. R., and Whitfield, G. K. (1991) Mol. Endocrinol. 5, 1137-1146). Site-directed mutagenesis of serine/threonine residues in this region now reveals a site of phosphorylation at Ser208 contained within the sequence -S208(P)EEDSDD- , a classic CK-II consensus recognition site. Mutation of this serine to a glycine drastically reduces phosphorylation of hVDR by CK-II, in vitro. The Ser208 mutant receptor also shows a dramatic decrease in [32P]orthophosphate incorporation when transfected into COS-7 cells. We therefore propose that phosphorylation of hVDR at Ser208 in target cells is mediated by casein kinase II or a similar enzyme, and that this quantitatively significant post-translational modification is a potential mechanism for the modulation of the activity of hVDR in controlling gene transcription.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)6791-6799
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Biological Chemistry
Issue number9
StatePublished - Jan 1 1993


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Cell Biology

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