Pharmacological Activation of PXR and CAR Downregulates Distinct Bile Acid-Metabolizing Intestinal Bacteria and Alters Bile Acid Homeostasis

Joseph L. Dempsey, Dongfang Wang, Gunseli Siginir, Qiang Fei, Daniel Raftery, Haiwei Gu, Julia Yue Cui

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The gut microbiome regulates important host metabolic pathways including xenobiotic metabolism and intermediary metabolism, such as the conversion of primary bile acids (BAs) into secondary BAs. The nuclear receptors pregnane X receptor (PXR) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) are well-known regulators for xenobiotic biotransformation in liver. However, little is known regarding the potential effects of PXR and CAR on the composition and function of the gut microbiome. To test our hypothesis that activation of PXR and CAR regulates gut microbiota and secondary BA synthesis, 9-week-old male conventional and germ-free mice were orally gavaged with corn oil, PXR agonist PCN (75 mg/kg), or CAR agonist TCPOBOP (3 mg/kg) once daily for 4 days. PCN and TCPOBOP decreased two taxa in the Bifidobacterium genus, which corresponded with decreased gene abundance of the BA-deconjugating enzyme bile salt hydrolase. In liver and small intestinal content of germ-free mice, there was a TCPOBOP-mediated increase in total, primary, and conjugated BAs corresponding with increased Cyp7a1 mRNA. Bifidobacterium, Dorea, Peptociccaceae, Anaeroplasma, and Ruminococcus positively correlated with T-UDCA in LIC, but negatively correlated with T-CDCA in serum. In conclusion, PXR and CAR activation downregulates BA-metabolizing bacteria in the intestine and modulates BA homeostasis in a gut microbiota-dependent manner.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)40-60
Number of pages21
JournalToxicological Sciences
Volume168
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 1 2019

Fingerprint

Bile Acids and Salts
Bacteria
Homeostasis
Down-Regulation
Chemical activation
Pharmacology
Pregnenolone Carbonitrile
Bifidobacterium
choloylglycine hydrolase
Xenobiotics
Metabolism
Liver
Ruminococcus
Gastrointestinal Contents
Corn Oil
Cytoplasmic and Nuclear Receptors
Biotransformation
Metabolic Networks and Pathways
pregnane X receptor
constitutive androstane receptor

Keywords

  • 16S rDNA sequencing
  • bile acid metabolism
  • CAR
  • gut microbiome
  • gut-liver axis
  • intestine
  • liver
  • liver metabolism
  • nuclear receptors
  • PXR

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology

Cite this

Pharmacological Activation of PXR and CAR Downregulates Distinct Bile Acid-Metabolizing Intestinal Bacteria and Alters Bile Acid Homeostasis. / Dempsey, Joseph L.; Wang, Dongfang; Siginir, Gunseli; Fei, Qiang; Raftery, Daniel; Gu, Haiwei; Yue Cui, Julia.

In: Toxicological Sciences, Vol. 168, No. 1, 01.03.2019, p. 40-60.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Dempsey, Joseph L. ; Wang, Dongfang ; Siginir, Gunseli ; Fei, Qiang ; Raftery, Daniel ; Gu, Haiwei ; Yue Cui, Julia. / Pharmacological Activation of PXR and CAR Downregulates Distinct Bile Acid-Metabolizing Intestinal Bacteria and Alters Bile Acid Homeostasis. In: Toxicological Sciences. 2019 ; Vol. 168, No. 1. pp. 40-60.
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