Personal control over one's work environment is an important theme in many branches of the social sciences. In the present study, longitudinal field data were used to assess a model of personal control in organizational settings. Business school graduates completed questionnaires prior to graduation and after 4 months (n = 297) and 10 months (n = 231) on the job. The results suggest two distinct responses to perceived personal control. The first implies a proactive orientation where control begets control: self-efficacy was positively associated with control, both variables were positively associated with problem-focused reactance, control and reactance were both negatively related to helplessness, and helplessness was negatively related to work adjustment. The second response to personal control implies a reactive orientation where unmet expectations prompt a sense of futility and withdrawal: control was negatively associated with unmet expectations, and unmet expectations were positively associated with helplessness and negatively associated with work adjustment.
- Newcomer adjustment
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
- Social Sciences(all)
- Strategy and Management
- Management of Technology and Innovation