Peripheral catecholamine levels and the symptoms of anxiety: Studies in patients with and without pheochromocytoma

M. N. Starkman, O. G. Cameron, Randolph Nesse, T. Zelnik

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

27 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We studied the correlation of plasma and urinary epinephrine (E) and norepinephrine (NE) levels with anxiety symptoms in three patient groups: 1) pheochromocytoma (PH+) (n = 17); 2) hypertensives with elevated catecholamine levels shown not to have a PH (PH-) (n = 25); and 3) patients with panic disorder (PD) (n = 23). Structured interviews and four self-rated anxiety scales were used: the SCL-90R Anxiety and Phobic Anxiety scales, and the Spielberger State/Trait Anxiety Inventories. The SCL-90R Somatization scale (which measures 12 somatic symptoms) was also utilized. None of the PH+ patients met DSM-III criteria for PD. Two met criteria for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Of the PH- patients, two had PD, two had GAD, and three had both. Urinary and plasma E did not show significant positive correlations with any of the four anxiety scales in any of the three patient groups. In both the PH+ and PH- groups, E was significantly correlated with the SCL-90R Somatization scale. NE was not significantly correlated with any of the four anxiety scales in the PH+ group. In contrast, in the PH- group, plasma NE was significantly correlated with anxiety on all anxiety scales (r = +0.55 to +0.77, p<0.05). Furthermore, in the PH- group, plasma NE was significantly correlated with those items of the SCL-90R Anxiety scale measuring the cognitive rather than the noncognitive symptoms of anxiety. In the PD group as well, plasma NE showed a significant correlation with the SCL-90R Anxiety Scale (r = +0.67, p<0.05). Taken together, our observations suggest that: 1) the effects of catecholamines in the periphery derived from a source independent of nervous system control (such as a PH) are not sufficient to elicit an anxiety disorder meeting DSM-III criteria; and 2) in patients without an autonomous source of peripheral catecholamines, NE in the periphery results from sympathetic nervous system activation and probably reflects, rather than causes, anxiety.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)129-142
Number of pages14
JournalPsychosomatic Medicine
Volume52
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1990
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Pheochromocytoma
Catecholamines
Anxiety
Norepinephrine
Panic Disorder
Anxiety Disorders
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
Sympathetic Nervous System
Nervous System
Epinephrine
Interviews

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Psychology(all)

Cite this

Peripheral catecholamine levels and the symptoms of anxiety : Studies in patients with and without pheochromocytoma. / Starkman, M. N.; Cameron, O. G.; Nesse, Randolph; Zelnik, T.

In: Psychosomatic Medicine, Vol. 52, No. 2, 1990, p. 129-142.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "We studied the correlation of plasma and urinary epinephrine (E) and norepinephrine (NE) levels with anxiety symptoms in three patient groups: 1) pheochromocytoma (PH+) (n = 17); 2) hypertensives with elevated catecholamine levels shown not to have a PH (PH-) (n = 25); and 3) patients with panic disorder (PD) (n = 23). Structured interviews and four self-rated anxiety scales were used: the SCL-90R Anxiety and Phobic Anxiety scales, and the Spielberger State/Trait Anxiety Inventories. The SCL-90R Somatization scale (which measures 12 somatic symptoms) was also utilized. None of the PH+ patients met DSM-III criteria for PD. Two met criteria for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Of the PH- patients, two had PD, two had GAD, and three had both. Urinary and plasma E did not show significant positive correlations with any of the four anxiety scales in any of the three patient groups. In both the PH+ and PH- groups, E was significantly correlated with the SCL-90R Somatization scale. NE was not significantly correlated with any of the four anxiety scales in the PH+ group. In contrast, in the PH- group, plasma NE was significantly correlated with anxiety on all anxiety scales (r = +0.55 to +0.77, p<0.05). Furthermore, in the PH- group, plasma NE was significantly correlated with those items of the SCL-90R Anxiety scale measuring the cognitive rather than the noncognitive symptoms of anxiety. In the PD group as well, plasma NE showed a significant correlation with the SCL-90R Anxiety Scale (r = +0.67, p<0.05). Taken together, our observations suggest that: 1) the effects of catecholamines in the periphery derived from a source independent of nervous system control (such as a PH) are not sufficient to elicit an anxiety disorder meeting DSM-III criteria; and 2) in patients without an autonomous source of peripheral catecholamines, NE in the periphery results from sympathetic nervous system activation and probably reflects, rather than causes, anxiety.",
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