Performance of bimanual circles and lines by adults with Down syndrome

Shannon Ringenbach, Annica B. Ericsson, James C. Kao

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


The aim of this study was to investigate differences among information that varied in interference during drawing tasks in adults with DS. Adults with DS and two comparison groups (Mental Age = MA; Chronological Age = CA) drew bimanual circles and lines coordinated with 3 decreasing rate metronomes: visual information in front of the participant (visual interference), visual information under the hands (reduced visual interference), and auditory information (no visual interference). There were no group differences between metronome conditions, although adults with DS maintained a constant rate despite changing metronome rates. For measures of between hand coordination, the MA group was more variable than adults with DS and the CA group and circles were more variable than lines. These results suggest that adults with DS have difficulty following timing information, regardless of type, for repetitive tasks.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)400-415
Number of pages16
JournalAdapted Physical Activity Quarterly
Issue number4
StatePublished - Oct 2003

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation


Dive into the research topics of 'Performance of bimanual circles and lines by adults with Down syndrome'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this