Percolation theory applied to the analysis of thermal interface materials in flip-chip technology

Amit Devpura, Patrick Phelan, Ravi S. Prasher

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

67 Scopus citations

Abstract

A very important aspect in chip design in the flip chip technology is the heat dissipation. As the surfaces of the heat sink, the heat spreader and the chip are rough there are imperfect contacts leading to higher thermal resistance due to the contact resistance. A method to decrease this contact resistance is by the use of thermal interface material. These thermal interface materials can be of various types, but most of them are polymers. Percolation theory holds a key to understanding the behavior of these polymers. Percolation, used widely in electrical engineering, is a phenomenon in which the highly conducting particles distributed randomly in the matrix form at least one continuous chain connecting the opposite faces of the matrix. This phenomenon was simulated and analytical results drawn from the program, to study the effect of considering 2-d and 3-d cases, matrix thickness, volume percentage of particles, and base material and particles of different conductivity. The simulation program was based on the matrix method, which not only simplifies the method of calculation but also increases the accuracy of the result thus obtained as compared to the calculations based on Kirchoff's Law or systematic node elimination, to obtain resultant thermal conductivity of the mixture. The analysis showed a sudden increase in thermal conductivity as soon as the percentage of particles reached the percolation threshold, which varied with all the parameters listed above. Comparison with the existing experimental results and the other existing models showed that the results from the percolation model were more accurate than other models, especially at high filler concentration.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationThermomechanical Phenomena in Electronic Systems -Proceedings of the Intersociety Conference
Place of PublicationPiscataway, NJ, United States
PublisherIEEE
Pages21-28
Number of pages8
Volume1
StatePublished - 2000
Event7th Intersociety Conference on Thermal and Thermomechanical Phenomena in Electronic Systems-ITherm 2000 - Las Vegas, NV, USA
Duration: May 23 2000May 26 2000

Other

Other7th Intersociety Conference on Thermal and Thermomechanical Phenomena in Electronic Systems-ITherm 2000
CityLas Vegas, NV, USA
Period5/23/005/26/00

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Engineering(all)

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    Devpura, A., Phelan, P., & Prasher, R. S. (2000). Percolation theory applied to the analysis of thermal interface materials in flip-chip technology. In Thermomechanical Phenomena in Electronic Systems -Proceedings of the Intersociety Conference (Vol. 1, pp. 21-28). IEEE.