Public and Private industry has identified a lack of leadership as one of the largest impediments to increasing productivity. In response, a tremendous emphasis has been placed on leadership development. This is reflected in the overwhelming research emerging through academia, focusing on leadership theories, processes, and programs. However, many industry leadership/improvement programs that have stemmed from academia have not been successful implemented. It is proposed that there is a disconnection between the research development of the academic world and its application by industry. The Performance Based Studies Research Group surveyed 115 companies with recent experience in leadership or change programs. The results of the survey indicated that many attempted leadership/improvement programs were founded on assumptions contradictory to observed realities and were extremely difficult to implement. The surveyed companies revealed problems that must be overcome to implement leadership/improvement processes in an organization, and characteristics common to a program's success.