Background The objective is to assess cardiovascular (CV), malignancy, infectious, graft outcomes and tacrolimus levels for the Indigenous patients compared to Whites after kidney transplant (KTx). Methods 165 Indigenous and 165 White patients matched for the KTx year at Mayo Clinic Arizona from 2007–2015 were studied over a median follow-up of 3 years. Propensity score was calculated to account for baseline differences. Results Compared to Whites, Indigenous patients had the following characteristics: younger age, more obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and required dialysis prior to KTx (p<0.01). Indigenous patients had longer hospital stay for KTx, shorter follow-up and lived further from the transplant center (p<0.05). 210 (63.6%) received deceased donor KTx and more Whites received a living donor KTx compared to Indigenous patients (55.2% vs 17.6%, p<0.0001). Post-KTx, there was no difference in the CV event rates. The cumulative incidence of infectious complications was higher among the Indigenous patients (HR 1.81, p = 0.0005, 48.5% vs 38.2%, p = 0.013), with urinary causes as the most common. Malignancy rates were increased among Whites (13.3% vs 3.0%, p = 0.001) with skin cancer being the most common. There was a significant increase in the dose normalized tacrolimus level for the Indigenous patients compared to Whites at 1 months, 3 months, and 1 year post-KTx. After adjustment for the propensity score, there was no statistical difference in infectious or graft outcomes between the two groups but the mean number of emergency room visits and hospitalizations after KTx was significantly higher for Whites compared to Indigenous patients. Conclusions Compared to Whites, Indigenous patients have similar CV events, graft outcomes and infectious complications after accounting for baseline differences.
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