A human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) was used to investigate the cumulative estrogenicity profiles elicited during the oxidation of three estrogenic compounds [bisphenol A (BPA), 17β-estradiol (E2), and 17α-ethynyl estradiol (EE2)]. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a method detection limit (MDL) of ∼1 nM was used to measure the initial and final concentrations of test compounds during oxidation. Both chlorination and ozonation removed from 75% to >99% of the test compounds in distilled water. Increasing contact time and chlorination dose improved compound removal. Chlorination byproducts of BPA, E2, and EE2 elicited low levels of estrogenicity over an extended period of time. For equivalent molar oxidant dosages, ozone and chlorine had comparable residual proliferative effect values and >99% loss of the parent compounds. For oxidation studies of estrogenic chemicals, ammonium chloride was found to adequately quench residual chlorine without interfering with cell culture assay. Oxidation of test compounds with chlorine and ozone resulted in a similar estrogenicity trend, with a relative higher level of estrogenicity elicited during the early phases of oxidation, which gradually dissipated over the extended exposure time to a stable point. Oxidation with ozone resulted in the rapid transformation of test compounds, reaching a stabilized estrogenic level in 10 min, whereas for chlorination it took more than 120 min for elicited estrogenicity to stabilize.
- 17α-ethynyl estradiol
- Bisphenol A
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis