Overview of Spirit Microscopic Imager Results

Ken E. Herkenhoff, Steve W. Squyres, Raymond E. Arvidson, Shoshanna B. Cole, Rob Sullivan, Aileen Yingst, Nathalie Cabrol, Ella M. Lee, Janet Richie, Bob Sucharski, James Bell, Fred Calef, Mary Chapman, Lauren Edgar, Brenda Franklin, Paul Geissler, Joel Hurowitz, Elsa Jensen, Jeffrey R. Johnson, Randy KirkPeter Lanagan, Craig Leff, Justin Maki, Kevin Mullins, Bonnie Redding, Melissa Rice, Michael Sims, Larry Soderblom, Nicole Spanovich, Richard Springer, Annette Sunda, Alicia Vaughan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

This paper provides an overview of Mars Exploration Rover Spirit Microscopic Imager (MI) operations and the calibration, processing, and analysis of MI data. The focus of this overview is on the last five Earth years (2005–2010) of Spirit's mission in Gusev crater, supplementing the previous overview of the first 450 sols of the Spirit MI investigation. Updates to radiometric calibration using in-flight data and improvements in high-level processing are summarized. Released data products are described, and a table of MI observations, including target/feature names and associated data sets, is appended. The MI observed natural and disturbed exposures of rocks and soils as well as magnets and other rover hardware. These hand-lens-scale observations have provided key constraints on interpretations of the formation and geologic history of features, rocks, and soils examined by Spirit. MI images complement observations by other Spirit instruments, and together show that impact and volcanic processes have dominated the origin and evolution of the rocks in Gusev crater, with aqueous activity indicated by the presence of silica-rich rocks and sulfate-rich soils. The textures of some of the silica-rich rocks are similar to terrestrial hot spring deposits, and observations of subsurface cemented layers indicate recent aqueous mobilization of sulfates in places. Wind action has recently modified soils and abraded many of the rocks imaged by the MI, as observed at other Mars landing sites.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)528-584
Number of pages57
JournalJournal of Geophysical Research: Planets
Volume124
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 1 2019

Fingerprint

Image sensors
rocks
Rocks
soils
rock
Soils
craters
silica
Mars landing sites
crater
Mars
sulfates
soil
Silicon Dioxide
calibration
Sulfates
sulfate
silicon dioxide
Mars exploration
data products

Keywords

  • geology
  • Mars
  • MER
  • Microscopic Imager
  • Spirit

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geophysics
  • Forestry
  • Oceanography
  • Aquatic Science
  • Ecology
  • Water Science and Technology
  • Soil Science
  • Geochemistry and Petrology
  • Earth-Surface Processes
  • Atmospheric Science
  • Space and Planetary Science
  • Earth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)
  • Palaeontology

Cite this

Herkenhoff, K. E., Squyres, S. W., Arvidson, R. E., Cole, S. B., Sullivan, R., Yingst, A., ... Vaughan, A. (2019). Overview of Spirit Microscopic Imager Results. Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, 124(2), 528-584. https://doi.org/10.1029/2018JE005774

Overview of Spirit Microscopic Imager Results. / Herkenhoff, Ken E.; Squyres, Steve W.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Cole, Shoshanna B.; Sullivan, Rob; Yingst, Aileen; Cabrol, Nathalie; Lee, Ella M.; Richie, Janet; Sucharski, Bob; Bell, James; Calef, Fred; Chapman, Mary; Edgar, Lauren; Franklin, Brenda; Geissler, Paul; Hurowitz, Joel; Jensen, Elsa; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Kirk, Randy; Lanagan, Peter; Leff, Craig; Maki, Justin; Mullins, Kevin; Redding, Bonnie; Rice, Melissa; Sims, Michael; Soderblom, Larry; Spanovich, Nicole; Springer, Richard; Sunda, Annette; Vaughan, Alicia.

In: Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, Vol. 124, No. 2, 01.02.2019, p. 528-584.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Herkenhoff, KE, Squyres, SW, Arvidson, RE, Cole, SB, Sullivan, R, Yingst, A, Cabrol, N, Lee, EM, Richie, J, Sucharski, B, Bell, J, Calef, F, Chapman, M, Edgar, L, Franklin, B, Geissler, P, Hurowitz, J, Jensen, E, Johnson, JR, Kirk, R, Lanagan, P, Leff, C, Maki, J, Mullins, K, Redding, B, Rice, M, Sims, M, Soderblom, L, Spanovich, N, Springer, R, Sunda, A & Vaughan, A 2019, 'Overview of Spirit Microscopic Imager Results', Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, vol. 124, no. 2, pp. 528-584. https://doi.org/10.1029/2018JE005774
Herkenhoff KE, Squyres SW, Arvidson RE, Cole SB, Sullivan R, Yingst A et al. Overview of Spirit Microscopic Imager Results. Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets. 2019 Feb 1;124(2):528-584. https://doi.org/10.1029/2018JE005774
Herkenhoff, Ken E. ; Squyres, Steve W. ; Arvidson, Raymond E. ; Cole, Shoshanna B. ; Sullivan, Rob ; Yingst, Aileen ; Cabrol, Nathalie ; Lee, Ella M. ; Richie, Janet ; Sucharski, Bob ; Bell, James ; Calef, Fred ; Chapman, Mary ; Edgar, Lauren ; Franklin, Brenda ; Geissler, Paul ; Hurowitz, Joel ; Jensen, Elsa ; Johnson, Jeffrey R. ; Kirk, Randy ; Lanagan, Peter ; Leff, Craig ; Maki, Justin ; Mullins, Kevin ; Redding, Bonnie ; Rice, Melissa ; Sims, Michael ; Soderblom, Larry ; Spanovich, Nicole ; Springer, Richard ; Sunda, Annette ; Vaughan, Alicia. / Overview of Spirit Microscopic Imager Results. In: Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets. 2019 ; Vol. 124, No. 2. pp. 528-584.
@article{5658d398bc604780bdee26a6f0ee7bae,
title = "Overview of Spirit Microscopic Imager Results",
abstract = "This paper provides an overview of Mars Exploration Rover Spirit Microscopic Imager (MI) operations and the calibration, processing, and analysis of MI data. The focus of this overview is on the last five Earth years (2005–2010) of Spirit's mission in Gusev crater, supplementing the previous overview of the first 450 sols of the Spirit MI investigation. Updates to radiometric calibration using in-flight data and improvements in high-level processing are summarized. Released data products are described, and a table of MI observations, including target/feature names and associated data sets, is appended. The MI observed natural and disturbed exposures of rocks and soils as well as magnets and other rover hardware. These hand-lens-scale observations have provided key constraints on interpretations of the formation and geologic history of features, rocks, and soils examined by Spirit. MI images complement observations by other Spirit instruments, and together show that impact and volcanic processes have dominated the origin and evolution of the rocks in Gusev crater, with aqueous activity indicated by the presence of silica-rich rocks and sulfate-rich soils. The textures of some of the silica-rich rocks are similar to terrestrial hot spring deposits, and observations of subsurface cemented layers indicate recent aqueous mobilization of sulfates in places. Wind action has recently modified soils and abraded many of the rocks imaged by the MI, as observed at other Mars landing sites.",
keywords = "geology, Mars, MER, Microscopic Imager, Spirit",
author = "Herkenhoff, {Ken E.} and Squyres, {Steve W.} and Arvidson, {Raymond E.} and Cole, {Shoshanna B.} and Rob Sullivan and Aileen Yingst and Nathalie Cabrol and Lee, {Ella M.} and Janet Richie and Bob Sucharski and James Bell and Fred Calef and Mary Chapman and Lauren Edgar and Brenda Franklin and Paul Geissler and Joel Hurowitz and Elsa Jensen and Johnson, {Jeffrey R.} and Randy Kirk and Peter Lanagan and Craig Leff and Justin Maki and Kevin Mullins and Bonnie Redding and Melissa Rice and Michael Sims and Larry Soderblom and Nicole Spanovich and Richard Springer and Annette Sunda and Alicia Vaughan",
year = "2019",
month = "2",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1029/2018JE005774",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "124",
pages = "528--584",
journal = "Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres",
issn = "2169-897X",
publisher = "Wiley-Blackwell",
number = "2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Overview of Spirit Microscopic Imager Results

AU - Herkenhoff, Ken E.

AU - Squyres, Steve W.

AU - Arvidson, Raymond E.

AU - Cole, Shoshanna B.

AU - Sullivan, Rob

AU - Yingst, Aileen

AU - Cabrol, Nathalie

AU - Lee, Ella M.

AU - Richie, Janet

AU - Sucharski, Bob

AU - Bell, James

AU - Calef, Fred

AU - Chapman, Mary

AU - Edgar, Lauren

AU - Franklin, Brenda

AU - Geissler, Paul

AU - Hurowitz, Joel

AU - Jensen, Elsa

AU - Johnson, Jeffrey R.

AU - Kirk, Randy

AU - Lanagan, Peter

AU - Leff, Craig

AU - Maki, Justin

AU - Mullins, Kevin

AU - Redding, Bonnie

AU - Rice, Melissa

AU - Sims, Michael

AU - Soderblom, Larry

AU - Spanovich, Nicole

AU - Springer, Richard

AU - Sunda, Annette

AU - Vaughan, Alicia

PY - 2019/2/1

Y1 - 2019/2/1

N2 - This paper provides an overview of Mars Exploration Rover Spirit Microscopic Imager (MI) operations and the calibration, processing, and analysis of MI data. The focus of this overview is on the last five Earth years (2005–2010) of Spirit's mission in Gusev crater, supplementing the previous overview of the first 450 sols of the Spirit MI investigation. Updates to radiometric calibration using in-flight data and improvements in high-level processing are summarized. Released data products are described, and a table of MI observations, including target/feature names and associated data sets, is appended. The MI observed natural and disturbed exposures of rocks and soils as well as magnets and other rover hardware. These hand-lens-scale observations have provided key constraints on interpretations of the formation and geologic history of features, rocks, and soils examined by Spirit. MI images complement observations by other Spirit instruments, and together show that impact and volcanic processes have dominated the origin and evolution of the rocks in Gusev crater, with aqueous activity indicated by the presence of silica-rich rocks and sulfate-rich soils. The textures of some of the silica-rich rocks are similar to terrestrial hot spring deposits, and observations of subsurface cemented layers indicate recent aqueous mobilization of sulfates in places. Wind action has recently modified soils and abraded many of the rocks imaged by the MI, as observed at other Mars landing sites.

AB - This paper provides an overview of Mars Exploration Rover Spirit Microscopic Imager (MI) operations and the calibration, processing, and analysis of MI data. The focus of this overview is on the last five Earth years (2005–2010) of Spirit's mission in Gusev crater, supplementing the previous overview of the first 450 sols of the Spirit MI investigation. Updates to radiometric calibration using in-flight data and improvements in high-level processing are summarized. Released data products are described, and a table of MI observations, including target/feature names and associated data sets, is appended. The MI observed natural and disturbed exposures of rocks and soils as well as magnets and other rover hardware. These hand-lens-scale observations have provided key constraints on interpretations of the formation and geologic history of features, rocks, and soils examined by Spirit. MI images complement observations by other Spirit instruments, and together show that impact and volcanic processes have dominated the origin and evolution of the rocks in Gusev crater, with aqueous activity indicated by the presence of silica-rich rocks and sulfate-rich soils. The textures of some of the silica-rich rocks are similar to terrestrial hot spring deposits, and observations of subsurface cemented layers indicate recent aqueous mobilization of sulfates in places. Wind action has recently modified soils and abraded many of the rocks imaged by the MI, as observed at other Mars landing sites.

KW - geology

KW - Mars

KW - MER

KW - Microscopic Imager

KW - Spirit

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85063078004&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85063078004&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1029/2018JE005774

DO - 10.1029/2018JE005774

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:85063078004

VL - 124

SP - 528

EP - 584

JO - Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres

JF - Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres

SN - 2169-897X

IS - 2

ER -