Magnetic Resonance Electrical Impedance Tomography (MREIT) is an MRI method that enables mapping of internal conductivity and/or current density via measurements of magnetic flux density signals. The MREIT measures only the z-component of the induced magnetic flux density B = (Bx, B y, Bz) by external current injection. The measured noise of Bz complicates recovery of magnetic flux density maps, resulting in lower quality conductivity and current-density maps. We present a new method for more accurate measurement of the spatial gradient of the magnetic flux density gradient (∇ Bz). The method relies on the use of multiple radio-frequency receiver coils and an interleaved multi-echo pulse sequence that acquires multiple sampling points within each repetition time. The noise level of the measured magnetic flux density Bz depends on the decay rate of the signal magnitude, the injection current duration, and the coil sensitivity map. The proposed method uses three key steps. The first step is to determine a representative magnetic flux density gradient from multiple receiver coils by using a weighted combination and by denoising the measured noisy data. The second step is to optimize the magnetic flux density gradient by using multi-echo magnetic flux densities at each pixel in order to reduce the noise level of ∇ Bz and the third step is to remove a random noise component from the recovered ∇ Bz by solving an elliptic partial differential equation in a region of interest. Numerical simulation experiments using a cylindrical phantom model with included regions of low MRI signal to noise ('defects') verified the proposed method. Experimental results using a real phantom experiment, that included three different kinds of anomalies, demonstrated that the proposed method reduced the noise level of the measured magnetic flux density. The quality of the recovered conductivity maps using denoised ∇ Bz data showed that the proposed method reduced the conductivity noise level up to 3-4 times at each anomaly region in comparison to the conventional method.
- magnetic flux density
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging