Operando studies have a significant impact in the field of heterogeneous catalysis for understanding the functionality of catalytic materials. Using operando techniques, dynamic structural changes of working catalysts can be obtained while measuring the catalytic performance at the same time. We have developed an "operando TEM" technique that combines the nanostructural characterization of the catalyst during the reaction with the simultaneous measurement of the catalyst activity using spectroscopy. Electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) was employed to detect and quantify catalytic products directly inside the environmental cell of the transmission electron microscope. In this paper, a detailed discussion on some of the challenges associated with developing operando TEM has been presented along with the initial results demonstrating the feasibility of this technique.
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