One Angry Woman: Anger Expression Increases Influence for Men, but Decreases Influence for Women, During Group Deliberation

Jessica M. Salerno, Liana C. Peter-Hagene

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  • 1 Citations

Abstract

We investigated whether expressing anger increases social influence for men, but diminishes social influence for women, during group deliberation. In a deception paradigm, participants believed they were engaged in a computer-mediated mock jury deliberation about a murder case. In actuality, the interaction was scripted. The script included 5 other mock jurors who provided verdicts and comments in support of the verdicts; 4 agreed with the participant and 1 was a "holdout" dissenter. Holdouts expressed their opinions with no emotion, anger, or fear and had either male or female names. Holdouts exerted no influence on participants' opinions when they expressed no emotion or fear. Participants' confidence in their own verdict dropped significantly, however, after male holdouts expressed anger. Yet, anger expression undermined female holdouts: Participants became significantly more confident in their original verdicts after female holdouts expressed anger-even though they were expressing the exact same opinion and emotion as the male holdouts. Mediation analyses revealed that participants drew different inferences from male versus female anger, which created a gender gap in influence during group deliberation. The current study has implications for group decisions in general, and jury deliberations in particular, by suggesting that expressing anger might lead men to gain influence, but women to lose influence over others (even when making identical arguments). These diverging consequences might result in women potentially having less influence on societally important decisions than men, such as jury verdicts. (PsycINFO Database Record

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalLaw and Human Behavior
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - Aug 31 2015
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

anger
Anger
influence exertion
participant
deliberation
woman
Deliberation
man
measurement method
emotion
opinion
Juries
Fear
Emotions
anxiety
Social influence
Expressed Emotion
Homicide
Deception
group decision

Keywords

  • Emotion
  • Gender
  • Jury decision making
  • Persuasion
  • Social influence

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Law
  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Psychology(all)
  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)

Cite this

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