Occurrence of bisphenol a diglycidyl ethers (BADGEs) and novolac glycidyl ethers (NOGEs) in archived biosolids from the U.S. EPA's targeted national sewage sludge survey

Jingchuan Xue, Arjun K. Venkatesan, Qian Wu, Rolf Halden, Kurunthachalam Kannan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

15 Scopus citations

Abstract

Epoxy resins incorporating bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) and novolac glycidyl ether (NOGE) are used in a wide range of applications, including adhesives, structural and electrical laminates. However, little is known about the occurrence of BADGE, NOGE, and their derivatives in the environment. Using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, BADGE, bisphenol F glycidyl ether (BFDGE), 3-ring NOGE, and eight of their derivatives (BADGE·2 H<inf>2</inf>O, BADGE·H<inf>2</inf>O, BADGE·HCl·H<inf>2</inf>O, BADGE·2 HCl, BADGE·HCl, BFDGE·2 H<inf>2</inf>O, and BFDGE·2 HCl) were determined in archived biosolid samples collected from 68 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) from the northeastern, midwestern, western, and southern regions of the USA. BADGE·2 H<inf>2</inf>O was the most frequently detected (DR = 99%) and the most abundant compound found (median: 93.6 ng/g dry weight [dw]) in this family. The highest total concentrations of target chemicals, ranging from 83.6 to 2490 ng/g dw, were found in biosolids collected from the northeastern United States. The sum of geometric mean (GM) concentration of BADGE, NOGE, and their derivatives in biosolids increased with the treatment capacity of WWTPs. Based on the measured concentrations in biosolids and predicted mass in wastewater, it was estimated that approximately 3.5% of the total production of BADGEs was emitted through WWTP discharges.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)6538-6544
Number of pages7
JournalEnvironmental Science and Technology
Volume49
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 2 2015

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Environmental Chemistry

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