Abstract

Titanium dioxide nanoparticles increasingly will be used in commercial products and have a high likelihood of entering municipal sewage that flows to centralized wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Treated water (effluent) from WWTPs flows into rivers and lakes where nanoparticles may pose an ecological risk. To provide exposure data for risk assessment, titanium concentrations in raw sewage and treated effluent were determined for 10 representative WWTPs that use a range of unit processes. Raw sewage titanium concentrations ranged from 181 to 1233 g L-1 (median of 26 samples was 321 g L-1). The WWTPs removed more than 96% of the influent titanium, and all WWTPs had effluent titanium concentrations of less than 25 g L-1. To characterize the morphology and presence of titanium oxide nanoparticles in the effluent, colloidal materials were isolated via rota-evaporation, dialysis and lyophilization. High resolution transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis indicated the presence of spherical titanium oxide nanoparticles (crystalline and amorphous) on the order of 4 to 30 nm in diameter in WWTP effluents. This research provides clear evidence that some nanoscale particles will pass through WWTPs and enter aquatic systems and offers a methodological framework for collecting and analyzing titanium-based nanomaterials in complex wastewater matrices.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1195-1203
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Environmental Monitoring
Volume13
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 2011

Fingerprint

Nanostructures
Waste Water
Titanium
Nanostructured materials
Wastewater treatment
titanium
Effluents
effluent
Nanoparticles
Sewage
sewage
Therapeutics
oxide
Dialysis
Energy dispersive X ray analysis
Freeze Drying
High resolution transmission electron microscopy
wastewater treatment plant
removal
Risk assessment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Cite this

Occurrence and removal of titanium at full scale wastewater treatment plants : Implications for TiO2 nanomaterials. / Westerhoff, Paul; Song, Guixue; Hristovski, Kiril; Kiser, Mehlika A.

In: Journal of Environmental Monitoring, Vol. 13, No. 5, 05.2011, p. 1195-1203.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{5635d46cb17b4edc86c6d41a4c38b3f8,
title = "Occurrence and removal of titanium at full scale wastewater treatment plants: Implications for TiO2 nanomaterials",
abstract = "Titanium dioxide nanoparticles increasingly will be used in commercial products and have a high likelihood of entering municipal sewage that flows to centralized wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Treated water (effluent) from WWTPs flows into rivers and lakes where nanoparticles may pose an ecological risk. To provide exposure data for risk assessment, titanium concentrations in raw sewage and treated effluent were determined for 10 representative WWTPs that use a range of unit processes. Raw sewage titanium concentrations ranged from 181 to 1233 g L-1 (median of 26 samples was 321 g L-1). The WWTPs removed more than 96{\%} of the influent titanium, and all WWTPs had effluent titanium concentrations of less than 25 g L-1. To characterize the morphology and presence of titanium oxide nanoparticles in the effluent, colloidal materials were isolated via rota-evaporation, dialysis and lyophilization. High resolution transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis indicated the presence of spherical titanium oxide nanoparticles (crystalline and amorphous) on the order of 4 to 30 nm in diameter in WWTP effluents. This research provides clear evidence that some nanoscale particles will pass through WWTPs and enter aquatic systems and offers a methodological framework for collecting and analyzing titanium-based nanomaterials in complex wastewater matrices.",
author = "Paul Westerhoff and Guixue Song and Kiril Hristovski and Kiser, {Mehlika A.}",
year = "2011",
month = "5",
doi = "10.1039/c1em10017c",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "13",
pages = "1195--1203",
journal = "Environmental Sciences: Processes and Impacts",
issn = "2050-7887",
publisher = "Royal Society of Chemistry",
number = "5",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Occurrence and removal of titanium at full scale wastewater treatment plants

T2 - Implications for TiO2 nanomaterials

AU - Westerhoff, Paul

AU - Song, Guixue

AU - Hristovski, Kiril

AU - Kiser, Mehlika A.

PY - 2011/5

Y1 - 2011/5

N2 - Titanium dioxide nanoparticles increasingly will be used in commercial products and have a high likelihood of entering municipal sewage that flows to centralized wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Treated water (effluent) from WWTPs flows into rivers and lakes where nanoparticles may pose an ecological risk. To provide exposure data for risk assessment, titanium concentrations in raw sewage and treated effluent were determined for 10 representative WWTPs that use a range of unit processes. Raw sewage titanium concentrations ranged from 181 to 1233 g L-1 (median of 26 samples was 321 g L-1). The WWTPs removed more than 96% of the influent titanium, and all WWTPs had effluent titanium concentrations of less than 25 g L-1. To characterize the morphology and presence of titanium oxide nanoparticles in the effluent, colloidal materials were isolated via rota-evaporation, dialysis and lyophilization. High resolution transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis indicated the presence of spherical titanium oxide nanoparticles (crystalline and amorphous) on the order of 4 to 30 nm in diameter in WWTP effluents. This research provides clear evidence that some nanoscale particles will pass through WWTPs and enter aquatic systems and offers a methodological framework for collecting and analyzing titanium-based nanomaterials in complex wastewater matrices.

AB - Titanium dioxide nanoparticles increasingly will be used in commercial products and have a high likelihood of entering municipal sewage that flows to centralized wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Treated water (effluent) from WWTPs flows into rivers and lakes where nanoparticles may pose an ecological risk. To provide exposure data for risk assessment, titanium concentrations in raw sewage and treated effluent were determined for 10 representative WWTPs that use a range of unit processes. Raw sewage titanium concentrations ranged from 181 to 1233 g L-1 (median of 26 samples was 321 g L-1). The WWTPs removed more than 96% of the influent titanium, and all WWTPs had effluent titanium concentrations of less than 25 g L-1. To characterize the morphology and presence of titanium oxide nanoparticles in the effluent, colloidal materials were isolated via rota-evaporation, dialysis and lyophilization. High resolution transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis indicated the presence of spherical titanium oxide nanoparticles (crystalline and amorphous) on the order of 4 to 30 nm in diameter in WWTP effluents. This research provides clear evidence that some nanoscale particles will pass through WWTPs and enter aquatic systems and offers a methodological framework for collecting and analyzing titanium-based nanomaterials in complex wastewater matrices.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=79955639965&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=79955639965&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1039/c1em10017c

DO - 10.1039/c1em10017c

M3 - Article

C2 - 21494702

AN - SCOPUS:79955639965

VL - 13

SP - 1195

EP - 1203

JO - Environmental Sciences: Processes and Impacts

JF - Environmental Sciences: Processes and Impacts

SN - 2050-7887

IS - 5

ER -